## Machining Student Tool List

• Apron (no loose apron strings)
• Brush - chips
• Brush - cutting fluid
• Clock - magnetic with timer
• Drawer Organizer
• Ear muffs
• Eye protection
• flashlight
• French Cleat 45deg System
• Gloves
• Optivisor with Light
• Magnetic Parts Holder
• magnetic clip
• Shop towels HF Item# 63365
• Socket Organizer
• steel toe shoes
• Storage Bin with lid
• Zip ties
• Toolbox
• 2x Portable storage case for bottom drawer
• Label maker or Magnetic Holder
• Toolbox cover
• 3 ring binder
• 3×5 cards stored in a ziplock bag
• Wrench Rack
• Textbooks
• Machinist Handbook
• References
• Tom Lipton - oxtoolco Machinist apprentice toolbox
• Keith Fenner - Turn Wright Machine Works What's in your Box

### Tool Cart

#### Problem

1. More tools than can fit in a tool box
2. Not enough flat working surfaces in shop
3. Can transport in back of truck with a) a dolly lift or b) another person. Yes you might be able to keep your tools at school/work but doubt they are insured.
4. Would be great to have a dedicated workshop but always need to do work offsite say at jobsite, school, friend, family, and so on
6. Tools to be self contained, don't get jumbled up when transporting

1. \$100 Tech Cart from Harbor Freight with modifications 2. Board along back so it can slide in the back of a truck, width of cart must fit between wheel wells on truck bed 3. Extension on back 1. tip onto back of tailgate 2. taller then cart with lid open 3. shelf with french cleat, to hang: 1. tool holders 2. mallet/dead blow hammer hook 3. chip brush 4. bin for micrometer, thread gage, etc 5. hook for optivisor 6. magnetic strip 1. allen wrenches 2. chuck key 3. center drill 4. Bottom shelf on side to hold Kennedy tool box, able to open top lid, bumper/curb on front of toolbox to keep secure but still able to access tools, have room behind toolbox to store optivisors in box 5. Top shelf on side, opposite cart handle to provide working surface 6. French cleat shelf on side to hold wrenches and long items that don't fit in drawers 7. Can throw french cleat shelves in bag for transportation #### Toolpost Holder Rack Examples ### Garage Items • Garage Items • Air Compressor • \$150 Harbor Freight 21 gal air compressor HF Item#61454
• Wen Variable speed drill press
• Lathe
• Miter Saw
• Metal Tumbler

### Lathe Tools

• CXA 2XL (250-302XL) Oversize 1“ Quick Change Tool Post Holder
• BXA 2XL (250-202-XL) Oversize 3/4” Quick Change Tool Post Holder
• CXA 7 (250-307) Universal Parting Blade Holder Lathe Quick Change
• Carbide Inserts (TCMT325* positive screw on) - Finishing
• 3/4” Shank Tool Bit Holder - Threading
• \$102.83 from Carbide Depot Kennametal item# 1281817 LSSR123D Threading Toolholder • \$238.50 from Carbide Depot Kennametal item# 1679780 LT16ERAG60CB KC5025
• \$125.00 from ebay discount_machine for Shars 12 Pc 3/4“ UN external indexable threading tool holder with inserts • 3/4” Shank Tool Bit Holder • A-L 0-degree • A-R 0-degree • B-L 15-degree • 3/4 BR-12 15-degree • E 30-degree for turning, facing, boring, chamfering, threading, and v-grooving • Style A - straight shank, 0° side cutting edge angle (SCEA) - Machinery's Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 767 • Style B - 15° side cutting edge angle (SCEA) - Machinery's Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 768 • Style C and E - 15° side cutting edge angle (SCEA) - Machinery's Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 769-770 • C6 Carbide Inserts with chipbreaker TCMT 32.52 - \$33 ebay - All Industrial ALL-20206
• Square Shape, Kennametal
• SNMG432FW KCP10 order# 3749368 - has 8 cutting edges (4 corners and top & bottom)
• SN = Square Negative
• MG =
• 4 =
• 32 =
• FW = Finish Wiper, the wiper feature does a second level cut to provide a smoother finish
• KCP10 grade can cut without oil (KC730 needs oil)
• \16.66 from MSC Industrial Direct • Holder, Kennametal - MSRNR124B order# 1096149 - has a 15° lead angle #### CSI Toolholders and Inserts • Insert Geometry for Cold Rolled/Mild Steel • Grade KCP10B produces excellent surface finishes on most steels and cast irons - problem have to high SFM and RPM • Grade KCP10 produces excellent surface finishes on most steels and cast irons - problem have to have high SFM and RPM • Grade KC5010 (KC730 and KC5010 use same carbide but KC730 can run 50 SFM slower which is needed on a manual lathe) works well on 1018 Cold Rolled Steel, only problem is the insert tip breaks easily - Jim at CSI.edu purchases these • KCU10 is a newer version of KC5010, so basically the same • Grade KC730 is best for low RPM, other inserts want to run at 1600 RPM min. Has a PVD thin gold coating. • TCMT3252LF KC730 order# 1162011 - Randy at Kennametal likes this best for manual machining • Carbide Depot - TCMT3252LF KC730 2LF = 2 is 1/32 = 0.030 min depth of cut, LF=Light Finish • 1/32 nose radius gives a better finish than the 1/64 • TCMT3252LF KCP25B 5698121 (works at low RPM, works with hot-rolled) • TCGT3252LF KC5010 order# 1522949 - very good ground insert, gives good finish (good for Aluminum) • RPM = 3.82 SFM / Diam (revolutions per minute) • SFM = 0.262 X Diam X RPM (surface feet per minute) • Carbide Turning Insert • #1162011 TCMT32.52 LF Grade KC730 - can run at slower RPM like 400 TCMT3252LF KC730 • TCMT325211 has nose radius 1/32, is it available in grade KC730 or KC5010? TCMT3252LF KC5010 • Carbide Threading Inserts • #1112958 for aluminum and can be used with mild steel • #1112895 for mild steel • Kennametal Grade# NTP3R • Kennametal Catalog# • NTP3R • NT3RK (recommended by Randy Kopka, Senior Analyst, Customer Application Support, na.techsupport@kennametal.com 1-800-835-3668, subject line - attention Randy) • Sandpaper with Cloth Backing to add a fine finish to 1018 steel ### Select Carbide Insert Example • Step 1 - identify material cutting - P • Step 2 - select insert geometry - Kennametal SNMG • Minimum depth of cut .013“ at .005 in/rev • Minimum depth of cut .008” at .008 in/rev • Depth of cut range: .008“ to .080” • feed rate range: .005 to .020 in/rev • Step 3 - select insert grade - KCP10 • 450 SFM for Steel (blue P0 to P6) • KCP30B • KCP30 • KCP40B • KCP40 ## Safety ## CNC Programming ### CNC Programmers • Mark Terryberry LinkedIn mterryberry at haascnc dot com ### CNC References ## CSI MANT 140 • Instructor: Jim Kellis 208-732-6379, jkellis@csi.edu • Department Chair, Trade & Industry: Kory Lloyd, 208-732-6811, klloyd@csi.edu ### NIMS #### Haas CNC Lathes at CSI • Model SL-10T serial# 3075860 • Model SL-10 serial# 3085544 #### Haas VMC ### ER Tool Holding System #### ER Collet Chuck Tool Holders or ER Holder Class #### ER Collet • ER 50 • ER 40 • ER 32 • ER 25 • ER 20 • ER 16 • ER 11 • ER 8 • Collet Dimensions • Collet Types • Standard Collet • High-Performance Collet • Tap Collet • Sealed Collets #### ER Collet Nut • Flush Nuts • Low-Friction Nuts • Coolant Nuts • Mini-Nuts #### Tool ### Turning - NIMS Content Area • NIMS Machining Level 1 Preparation Guide - Turning • Turning Speeds and Feeds • Cutting speed - is based on the distance the work moves past the tool based on the number of feet that passes the tool in one minute and is given in surface feet per minute. • cutting speed (fpm) feet per minute • Work Holding Devices and Basic Setup • Lathe Components • Turning Operations • Process Improvement and Troubleshooting • To improve a process, one must first understand the process. A competent machinist should be able to identify the root cause if a straight cut between centers measures as a taper. Measuring a taper (when a straight cut is intended) and moving the tailstock the proper amount based on the measurement is another skill needed to effectively and efficiently engage in turning operations. Other skill sets include the proper way to take the first cut on cast iron and hot roll steel, the root cause of lathe center runout, turning hard material and the effect of having the lathe tool above or below center. • Turning Safety • Safety knowledge and practice is an important component for lathe operations. The operator must know the basic personal protective equipment needed to effectively operate a lathe safely. Proper lifting techniques, learning how to find MSDS and HMIS information and some basic personal first aid are essential knowledge for all machinists. Other safety components involve the safe installation of chucks and collets as well as chip control and chip removal. • Lathe Controls • An understanding of basic lathe control mechanisms enables the machinist to utilize the lathe in an efficient and productive manner. Knowing how each control works and its function is imperative to any safe turning operation. Knowing how to use the feed reverse lever, half nut lever and the proper method to change speeds and feeds is imperative knowledge. Each manufacturer of lathes has unique methods of implementing lathe controls. It is the job of the machinist to become familiar with each particular set of lathe controls. • Single Point Threading • Single point threading is one of the fundamental skill sets needed to operate a lathe. The machinist must be familiar with thread angles, helix angles, thread pitch diameter, lead and different families of thread forms. Proper alignment of the threading tool as well as the proper location of the compound rest are essential setup steps needed to turn threads with a single point tool. A machinist must be able to calculate the proper infeed to prevent the thread from either being cut too deep or too shallow. • Tapping, Fits and Allowances • The turning process is often used to size shafts and holes for certain fits. Knowledge of the definitions of a fit and an allowance is essential prior to machining. The machinist should have a basic knowledge of the types of fits and be able to reference the Machinery's Handbook to determine the size of each component. Planning the sequence of operation is essential to prevent ruining a fit due to burrs and poor surface finish. • Process Control • Monitoring the process with process control techniques results in quality parts and customer satisfaction. The first step in any process control endeavor is knowing when the part is accepted or rejected. Basic knowledge of process control techniques such as inspection sheets, Pareto charts, capability studies and X bar/R charts are effective means of process control. The most common method of process control, besides the inspection sheet, is SPC (statistical process control) utilizing the X bar/R chart. The machinist must understand the definition of range, mean, upper control limit, lower control limit and sample size. • Tooling and Lathe Setup • Many lathe applications use tooling with carbide inserts. However, some lathe applications use high-speed steel tools that must be ground to the desired shape. The machinist should know the proper sequence for grinding the surfaces of the lathe tool applying the proper rake angles. Knowledge of the various methods of aligning the lathe centers and the degree if accuracy of each method depends on the tolerance of the work piece dimensions. Proper setups for facing and compound rest fundamentals are other essential skill sets included in this area. • Layout Procedures • Layout is the initial step in any machining process. Understanding the concepts and proper utilization of semi-precision and precision layout techniques is important for every machinist. The machinist should know the function of a scriber and the types of layout instruments used with surface plates. #### Turning Speeds and Feeds and Depth of Cut • Reference • Technology of Machine Tools, 7th Ed by Krar, Gill, Smid • Material is 1“ round, material Aluminum • Step 1 - Lookup Cutting Speed (CS) feet/min of a material • “Lathe work cutting speed (CS) may be defined as the rate at which a point on the work circumference travels past the cutting tool.” (ibid, p. 370) • Aluminum • Rough Cut: 200 ft/min • Finish Cut: 300 ft/min Lathe Cutting Speed (CS) feet per min (ft/min) for various materials Material Turning and Boring - Rough Cut Turning and Boring - Finish Cut Threading Aluminum 1060 Alloy 200 300 60 Delrin Steel AISI 1020 90 100 35 • Step 2 - calculate RPM or lathe spindle speed in revolutions per minute (r/min) • RPM = CS * 4 / D = 200 * 4 / 1 = 800 RPM which is too fast, take 1/3 of this = 266 RPM • CS = 200 ft/min for Aluminum • D = Diameter in inches • Step 3 - lathe feed controlled by the gearbox • distance the cutting tool advances along the length of the work for every revolution of the spindle • Aluminum • Rough Cut: 0.015 - 0.030 inches • Finish Cut: 0.005 - 0.010 inches • Step 4 - depth of cut • the tool feed is radius and the material removed is diameter • If I need to remove 0.010” of material, then depth of cut is 0.005“ • Aluminum • Finish Cut: 0.005 - #### Turning Speeds and Feeds • How do I determine the cut time (minutes)? • cut time = cut length / feed rate (IPM) • How do I determine the feed rate (IPM)? • feed rate = spindle speed (RPM) x cutting feed (IPR) • How do I determine the cutting feed (IPR, inches per revolution)? • the distance that the cutting tool or workpiece advances during one revolution of the spindle • ipm = feed rate (inches per minute) • ipr = cutting feed (inches per revolution) • rpm = spindle speed (revolutions per minute) • fpm = cutting speed (feet per minute) • sfm = cutting speed (surface feet per minute) • CS = cutting speed (older notation) • too low cutting speed (SFM or CS) produces discontinuous chips (BAD) • proper cutting speed (SFM or CS) produces continuous chips (GOOD) • too high cutting speed (SFM or CS) produces built up chips (VERY BAD) • Step 1 - lookup the surface feet per minute (SFM) for the material cutting on the lathe. What is your speed? respond with SFM not RPM • SFM - also called surface speed or simply speed is the speed difference (relative velocity) between the cutting tool and the surface of the workpiece it is operating on. It is expressed in units of distance along the workpiece surface per unit of time, typically surface feet per minute (sfm). (Destiny Tool - Understanding Speeds & Feeds) • Step 2 - find diameter of rotating part/tool. If drilling, use diameter of drill bit. If on the lathe, use diameter of workpiece. If on the mill, use diameter of cutter tool. • rough cut 0.001” any deeper will cause chatter • finishing cut 0.0002“ for accuracy and finish • see CNC Cookbook G-Wizard • Step 3 - calculate max RPM (THATLAZYMACHINIST recommends using 1/3 of max RPM) • actual max RPM = SFM x 3.82 / D • actual max RPM = SFM x 12 / (π x D) • 12 / π = 3.8197 • estimated max RPM = SFM x 4 / D • Step 2 - calculate the feed rate (IPR, inches per revolution) • Definition of cutting speed • feet per minute (fpm) • surface feet per minute (sfm) • Definition of feed or feed rate, f the speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the workpiece as the tool makes a cut • The feed rate is measured in inches per minute (IPM) • inches per revolution (ipr) • Calculating the RPM • spindle speed (rpm) • Identification of the RPM formula • Calculating the number of revolutions needed to move a lathe tool a given distance when given the feed per revolution • Time required to make one cut over a given length when given the RPM and feed per revolution • Calculating the RPM of a given drill diameter when drilling on a lathe • What about Material Removal Rate (MRR)? Seems like a balance, more material you remove the more wear and tear on equipment. ### Turning - Step 1 - Select Workpiece Material Group • K - Cast Iron • Tool Steel • Stainless Steel • P - Steel • P0 • ASTM A36 - hot rolled steel • AISI 1018 - cold rolled steel • P1 • AISI 12L14 - cold rolled steel • Aluminum • Delrin ### Turning - Step 2 - Tool bit and insert geometry selection • Triangle Shape - TCMT32.52 LF Grade KC730 • Kennametal# 1162011 Carbide Depot - TCMT3252LF KC730 at \16 each
• more economical, get 3 tips instead of 2, downside larger insert so difficult to get into tight spaces
• Diamond Shape - DPGT3251HP KC5010
• Kennametal# 1310719 Carbide Depot - DPGT3251HP KC5010 at \$14.50 each • Note HP is High Positive and typically used on Aluminum • use when need to get into tight areas on the lathe • Square Shape, Kennametal • SNMG432FW KCP10 order# 3749368 - has 8 cutting edges (4 corners and top & bottom) • SN = Square Negative • FW = Finish Wiper, the wiper feature does a second level cut to provide a smoother finish • KCP10 grade can cut without oil (KC730 needs oil) • \$16.66 from MSC Industrial Direct
• Holder, Kennametal - MSRNR124B order# 1096149 - has a 15° lead angle
• If experience chatter, try the following
• increase or decrease RPM
• tighten workpiece tailstock
• Kennametal Catalog Numbers - Interactive Catalog
• CNMG432FP
• C - Insert Shape, Rhomboid
• N
• M
• G
• 4
• 3
• FP
• typically 1/64” or 1/32“
• 1 = 1/64”
• 2 = 2/64“ or 1/32”
• 3 = 3/64“
• 4 = 4/64” or 1/16“

### Turning - Step 3 - Insert Grade

• Manual Lathe - machining cold rolled steel
• KC730 is best grade for this, even with 1600 RPM and 0.0012 in/rev (#1 IATX gear setting on Sharp lathe) feed the finish is smooth but looks blemished
• KCU10 is a newer version of KC5010 (owned by csi.edu), both are a good choice

### Turning - Step 4 - Feed Rate and Depth of Cut

• Lookup manufacture recommended feed rate and depth of cut

### Turning - Step 5 - Cutting Speed (SFM or FPM)

• Lookup cutting speed of insert grade
• KC730 has 400 SFM (Surface Feet per Minute or FPM=Feet Per Minute)
• KCU10 and KC5010 has 450 SFM
• Machinery's Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 1016

### Turning - Step 6 - Spindle Speed (RPM)

• Lookup Spindle Speed (RPM = Revolutions Per Minute)
• Machinery's Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 1016

## How to make these parts

• How would I make a flange? Allied Group Flanges has several flanges that can be purchased. When I made a flange, the hole pattern only fit in one setting, that is if I rotate the flange, then the holes didn't line up. This is due to the difficulty of laying out the pattern and the drill bit on the drill press wandering a little bit.

### Circular Hole Layout

• “A very practical use for this kind of calculation is in spacing bolt holes or otherwise dividing a circle into any number of equal parts. It is easy enough to get the length of each arc of the circumference by dividing 360° by the number of divisions, but what we want is to find the chord or the distance from one point to the next in a straight line as a pair of dividers would step it off. First divide 360° by the number of divisions - say 9 - and get 40° in each part. Fig. 5 shows this and we want the distance shown or the chord of the angle. This equals twice the sine of half the angle. Half the angle is 20° and the sine for this is 0.342. Twice this or 0.684 is the chord of the 40° angle for every inch of radius. If the circle is 14 inches in diameter the distance between the holes will be 7 times 0.684 or 4.788 inches. This is very quick and the most accurate method known.” (American Machinists' Handbook, 2nd Edition, by Fred H. Colvin and Frank A. Stanley, p. 523)

## Metal Characteristics

### Ferrous (containing Iron, Fe)

#### Cast Iron

• Malleable Iron - can be hammered into shape without fracturing
• Use carbide cutting tools when working with Iron, Fe
• Don't use cutting fluids on cast iron, use compressed air if a coolant is needed

### Machining Iron and Hot-Rolled Steel

• “The surface of ferrous metal castings has a scale that is more difficult to machine than the metal below/within. Some scale is more difficult to machine than others, depending on the foundry sand used, the casting process, the method of cleaning the casting, and the type of metal cast. Special electrochemical treatments sometimes can be used that almost entirely eliminate the effect of the scale on machining, although castings so treated are not frequently encountered. Usually, when casting scale is encountered, the cutting speed is reduced approximately 5 or 10%. Difficult-to-machine surface scale can also be encountered when machining hot-rolled or forged steel bars.” (Machinery's Handbook, 28th Edition p. 979 of 3455)

## Measurements

### Micrometer

• How to read an inch micrometer by ET Prof - excellent discussion on micrometer

### Finding Center

• “Centering Parts to be Turned.As previously mentioned, there are a number of different methods of forming center-holes in the ends of parts that have to be turned while held between lathe centers. A method of centering light work, and one that requires few special tools, is first to locate a central point on the end and then drill and ream the center-hole by using the lathe itself. Hermaphrodite dividers are useful for finding the center, as illustrated at A, Fig. 25, but if the work is fairly round, a center-square B is preferable. A line is scribed across the end and then another line at right angles to the first by changing the position of the square; the intersection of these two lines will be the center, which should be marked by striking29 a pointed punch C with a hammer. If a cup or bell center-punch D is available, it will not be necessary to first make center lines, as the conical part shown locates the punch in a central position. This style of punch should only be used on work which is fairly round.” (Turning and Boring by Franklin D. Jones, p. 29)

### Measure Diameter

• Toms Techniques - Common Methods of Measuring the Diameter of a Hole
1. Drill Bits
2. Inside Calipers - transfer to micrometer to measure
3. Telescoping Gauge Set from Harbor Freight - transfer to micrometer to measure

• Identify bolt size, screw thread form, external or internal threads, TPI and class. For example:
• 1/2” bolt diameter
• 13 Threads Per Inch (TPI)
• Class of Fit
• Class 1A (external) and 1B (internal)
• Loose fit between mating threads, ideal for quick assembly and disassembly, where speed is more important than precision. This class is seldom used.
• Class 2A and 2B
• ideal for general assembly fasteners and is the most common class of fit found on general-purpose nuts and bolts. Easy to assemble and still offer enough thread engagement to achieve considerable strength.
• Class 3A and 3B
• has little or no clearance between mating threads, used when a very accurate or high-strength assembly is required. This class of fit is more expensive to achieve since its production must be monitored closely in order to ensure accuracy. (Precision Machining Technology, p. 417)
• Step 0 - prepare workpiece by facing and turning and countersink ends with a center drill
• Step 1 - determine finish diameter of the work piece/bolt, threads per inch, and
• Step 2 - determine threads per inch (TPI)
• Step 3 - determine feeds and speeds
• Spindle speed, N in revolutions per minute (rpm) = 12V/πD, where V = cutting speed in feet per minute, D = diameter of workpiece (Machinery's Handbook 27th, p. 1016)
• “The feed used for tapping and threading must be equal to the lead (feed = lead = pitch) of the thread being cut” (Machinist Handbook, 27th, p. 1064)
• Step 3 - Machinery Handbook
• Major diameter (used turn workpiece to this diameter range)
• Minor diameter (used to determine depth of cut for the thread and thread relief groove or undercut)
• Minor Diameter Tolerance (External Threads) (1) UNR Classes. To intersection of rounded root with its centerline (see Figs. 2 and 3), equals pitch diameter tolerance for class of thread specified, plus 0.10825318P (see Table 5). (2) UN Classes 1A, 2A, and 3A. To intersection of flat root with flanks of threads (see Figs. 2 and 3), equals pitch diameter tolerance for class of thread specified, plus 0.21650635P (see table 5). (ASME B1.1-2003 UNIFIED INCH SCREW THREADS, p. 58)
• Depth of cut is Major - Minor diameter (don't be confused with radius or diameter, lathe manufactures understand you can't cut a radius on the lathe, only can cut diameter so the dial dimensions are

for diameters)

• Step 4 - face workpiece and if going to use the tail stock to hold the workpiece, add center drill
• Step 5 - turn workpiece to within major diameter range
• Step 6 - cut thread relief groove/undercut to the minor diameter
• Step 7 - lathe - change gears to required TPI and reduce spindle RPM speed to 1/4 turning speed around 70 RPM for mild steel.
• Step 8 - rotate compound rest in-feed to 29-29.5 degrees. Both cross slide and compound set to 0. Use center/fishtail gage to verify 60 degree angle of cutting tool and proper alignment with workpiece.
• Step 9 - paint layout fluid (Dykem) on workpiece, touch off work piece and do a very light pass (0.001“). Use thread gage to measure markings.
• engage half-nut lever at the same number to avoid problems
• “Usually, even-number threads per inch can be cut by engaging the half-nut lever at any number on the thread dial, and odd-number threads per inch are cut by engaging the half-nut lever at the odd numbers on the dial.” (Precision Machining Technology, p. 425)
• MSC Direct screw pitch gage
• Step 10 - depth of cut = compound-rest distance x cos 30 degrees, 0.010” cos 30 = 0.00866“
• Benefits of using compound rest
• cut only on one side of the bit
• faster - only have to advance the compound-rest, don't have to worry about DRO, just turn cross feed out one full turn, move carriage back to start of the thread, advance cross fee back in one full turn, then advance compound rest 0.02” to make another pass on the threads
• Disadvantage - have to calculate the thread depth using cos 30 degrees
• Formula to calculate the depth of thread, d see Machinery's Handbook 27th Edition, p. 1725
• Step 11 - measure pitch diameter
• MS Direct - Fowler screw thread micrometer
• Step 12 - screw on nut
• Popular Science Oct 1941,

• NIMS Questions
• [Q] A thread micrometer is used to measure what dimension on an external thread?
• A. Major diameter
• B. Minor diameters
• D. Pitch diameter
• [A] Pitch diameter
• Major diameter can be measure with a normal micrometer
• Minor diameter can NOT be measured but the depth of cut on the compound rest measures true radius, so could calculate the minor diameter
• Thread helix angle is also known as the lead angle which is 30°
• see Machinery's Handbook, 27th Ed, p. 1966

## Drilling

### Tap and Die

• Tap Size Chart from CustomPartNet.com gives the tap size, tap drill size, threads per inch (TPI)
• Drill bit, Tap and Die Set
• Irwin Tools. Tubalcain recommends HSS (High Speed Steel) taps instead of carbon steel (cheaper). Cannot sharpen taps so trash if dull.
• Tap Blocks
• How to layout, drill and tap a hole using a drill press by www.lewisrazors.com
• Ways to tap a hole straight - Part A by Lyle Peterson (a.k.a tubal cain or MrPete222, recommends using a counter bore about half way through the material with a larger drill bit, for example he used a tapper tape (7-8 tapper teeth) instead of a plug tap (3-4 tapper teeth), use cutting oil, turn about one full turn of the tap, then back it off, 5/16-18 threads per inch, then use a 1/4“ drill bit for the entire hole, then counter bore with 5/16” about halfway down. This helps the tap to start straight. Also shows how to use a Tap Handle Level from Edge Technology Products.com. Also shows the hand tapper guide. Lastly, using a homemade circular guide block
• Tapping Perpendicular Holes - Part B - On the Drill Press by Lyle Peterson (a.k.a. tubalcain or MrPete222)

## Band Saw

• Cutting 1 inch solid round of ASTM A36 steel with 10/14 blade and 200 fpm, took 2 min 30 sec to complete.
• Speed 200 fpm (feet per minute), cut/feed rate = 1.27 in2/min
• From Machinery's Handbook, Material Steel (A36 Shapes) use 270 fpm
• \$50 for 38pc 1/2” shank Carbide Tipped Single Point ALL-19896 • Tool post holder • CXA - large (Sharp GT-1640S larger lathe) • CXA-2 has bottom groove • CXA #2 XL (250-302-XL) appears to hold 1“ shank • BXA - medium (Sharp smaller lathe) • BXA-2 has bottom groove and max 5/8” shank • BXA #2 XL (250-202-XL) has bottom groove and max 3/4“ shank • AXA - small • Tool holder - 3/4” shank • Parting tool holder • Parting Blade / HSS Cut Off - M2 1/8 x 11/16 x 5 • Knurling tool ## Help ### Being a Machinist • It Never Rains Oil ### Machining Companies ### CNC Software ### Jobs • Qualifications: - 5 years minimum experience required - High school diploma, GED, or graduate of a technical school - Ability to setup programs and make offset adjustments - Knowledge of basic machining practices - Understanding of G-Code programming - Ability to read, understand blueprints and GD and T required - Ability to use inspection equipment and inspection techniques - Must have own tools - Understanding of AS9100 and ISO quality requirements • CNC Machinists. We need Machinists to do set ups and/or operate our 125 CNC lathes and mills. All skill levels welcome! H.S. Diploma or GED, 1+ years' experience as a CNC machine operator or setup. Ability to read micrometers and calipers required. Reliable, dependable attendance and a strong work ethic a must! • CNC Programmer. If you have 5+ years programming Mazak machines and Mazatrol controls using MasterCam, can import solids, and create multi-axis programs, we offer you a very handsome hourly rate of \$24-\$30/hour depending on your skill level, speed, and accuracy. This is not X,Y, Z programming. Once your programming is complete, you will get to run test parts and check your work. High School Diploma or GED, 5+ years verifiable programming history, strong work ethic, positive, team attitude and a willingness to learn. Regular, reliable, dependable attendance is a must! • Contact Us Email on 21 Sept 2014. Hello Wiseco, I would like your recommendation on a wiseco high performance piston that I will have my students recreate, that is (draw in Autodesk Inventor, print on a 3D printer, use as a pattern to sand cast out of aluminum, and machine on a lathe and mill) and use in a steam engine. I need a piston that can fit in a 5“x5”x5“ box. Will you please let me know who I could discuss this idea in more detail with and what the cost will be. Thanks, Jeff Jensen Teacher Bonanza High School 6665 W Del Rey Ave Las Vegas NV 89146 mobile: 702-327-9294 ### Education • Vincennes University for \$8,000 offers a 16 week machining course in Vincennes Indiana
• National Institute for Metalworking Skills Inc., NIMS login jeff.jensen NormalOne email: jjjensen@interact.ccsd.net
• Melanie Stover, Director of Strategic Initiatives, 703-352-4971, mstover@nims-skills.org approved Grant Funding for Bonanza HS
• Gene Haas Foundation-National Institute for Metalworking Skills (GHF-NIMS) Credentialing Scholarship Program awarded grant towards NIMS registration and credential testing.
• Lincoln Tech - CNC Machining and Manufacturing Technology

#### California Schools and Colleges

• El Camino College Machine Tool Technology
• Eric Carlson, Associate Professor, email: ecarlson@elcamino.edu - teacher <i>Introduction to Conventional and CNC Machining</i>. Textbook - Technology of Machine Tools by Krar.

#### Idaho Schools and Colleges

• College of Western Idaho - Machine Tool Technology. Dave Sperry - Program Chair 208-562-2346, Bill Starkey - Assistant Professor 208-562-2347. DeLynn Bute (delynnbute@cwidaho.cc, 208-562-2381) is the Learning Community Coordinator in Professional Technical Education.
• program accepts about 16 students every fall. Classes are only offered in Fall and Spring semesters. According to Pat Neal, CWI Director (patneal@cwidaho.cc, 208-562-2336) all graduates have jobs waiting for them, the demand in the industry is greater than the graduation rate.
• Idaho Machinery and Supply is a corporate sponsor of CWI Machine Tool Technology program
• College of Southern Idaho - Manufacturing Technology Contact Person: Ben Hamlett Phone: 208-732-6374, Email: bhamlett@csi.edu

### Supplies and Materials

• Intermountain Machining Supply, Inc (www.ims.supply/OnlineCatalog)
• Greg Goetz (pronouce Gets) ggoetz@ims.supply, 208-321-8073
• Sherline Products lathes and mills. Craig Libuse, craig@sherline.com, 10% educational/non-profit discount call Kim Kapple 800-541-0735
• Which lathe has metric readouts?
• 4410C Metric Lathe Package - 1,245 US Currency
• 2010A Metric Mill Package - 1,265 US Currency
• Robert “Bobby” Rosenfield, email: robert_rosenfield@yahoo.com, <strike>481-3387</strike>
• El Camino College in Los Angeles
• csi.edu

### Kennametal

• Randy Kopka, Senior Analyst, Customer Application Support, na.techsupport@kennametal.com, 800-835-3668
• Tool Holder Size, Square Shank
• Right Hand, On Center or Left Hand

### Grizzly Industrial

• DRO
• Power Feed (cross slide or carriage)
• Cost \$4600 • DRO • Power Feed • Cost \$4750
• Cost \$3995 • Cost \$1695

### Smithy Industries

• Appears Smithy 3-in-1 have a power feed
1. Lathe only produces three types of cuts:
1. Turning - cutting tool is moved parallel to the lathe axis, removes material from the outside diameter of the work piece
2. Facing - cutting tool is moved perpendicular to the lathe axis, removes material from the end or edge of the part
3. Boring - cutting tool removes material from the inside diameter of the work piece
4. These cuts can then be used for drilling, cutting tapers, threading, grinding, plunge cuts
• 1.1 Machine Tool Basics - Intro to Lathe Operations on Smithy Granite 3-in-1 combo
• 1.2 Machine Tool Basics - Lathe Workholding - Smithy Granite 3-in-1
• shows flaceplate, rule of thumb need to use the lathe center with a live center (rotating point) in the tail stock to hold the opposite end if the length of the work piece is greater than 3x the diameter, or use a steady rest or a follow rest
• 1.3 Machine Tool Basics - Lathe Cutting Tools
• 1.4 Machine Tool Basics - Lathe Controls - Smithy Granite 3-in-1
• 2.1 Machine Tool Basics - Milling Machine Operations - Smithy Granite 3-in-1
• 2.2 Machine Tool Basics - Mill Cuttin Tools - Smithy Granite 3-in-1
• Face, Flycutter - produce excellent flat finish
• 2.3 Machine Tool Basics - Mill Workholding - Smithy Granite 3-in-1
• 2.4 Machine Tool Basics - Milling Controls - Smithy Granite 3-in-1
• 3.1 Machine Tool Basics - Tool Maintenance - Smithy Granite 3-in-1