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engineer-mechanical:surfacetreatment [2019/09/08 20:08]
jjensen [Step 12 - Etching]
engineer-mechanical:surfacetreatment [2019/11/05 19:20] (current)
jjensen [DC Rectifier Power Supply]
Line 20: Line 20:
     * Emittance     * Emittance
   * Reference   * Reference
-    * ASM Handbook ​Vol 13a Corrosion, p. 1897 of 2597+    * [[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[ASM Handbook ​Vol13A: ​Corrosion, p. 1897 of 2597]]] 
  
 ===== Anodizing Station ===== ===== Anodizing Station =====
-  * 5 gal buckets typically have circumference of 35" with diameter 11.14" (~11-3/​16"​)+  * 5 gal buckets typically have  
 +    * circumference of 35" with diameter 11.14" (~11-3/​16"​) ​at bottom 
 +    * top diameter is 12.5" or 12.19"​ 
 +    * total height of 14.35"​ 
 +    * height from bottom to first reinforcement ring is 11" 
 +  * Polypropylene Tank 
 +    * Plastic Welding Kit 1300 Watt [[https://​www.harborfreight.com/​plastic-welding-kit-with-air-motor-and-temperature-adjustment-96712.html|HF #96712]] 
 +    * #41602 Plastic Rod Set 
 +    * [[https://​www.amazon.com/​dp/​B07TZC2395/​ref=twister_B07X9CPH9Z?​_encoding=UTF8&​psc=1|Amazon - Polypropylene PP Plastic Welding Rods]] 
 +  * Chiller 
 +    * \$289 Home Depot - [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​GE-Garage-Ready-7-0-cu-Ft-Manual-Defrost-Chest-Freezer-in-White-FCM7SKWW/​206943524|GE Garage Ready 7 cu ft manual defrost chest freezer]]
  
 +===== Rule 720 - Anodizing Time =====
 +  * Anodize Time = 720 * thickness anodize layer / ASF
 +    * ASF = Amps / ft^2 
 +    * surface area of both the part and the rack is needed in ft^2
 ===== Workflow - Aluminum Parts ===== ===== Workflow - Aluminum Parts =====
   * Background   * Background
Line 62: Line 77:
   * Step 28 - dry in clean still or circulated air - room temperature or warm with hot air gun. Buff or wipe with a clean rag [Gilmour]. Apply mineral oil or WD40 with a soft cloth [Caswell 2003, p. 8]]   * Step 28 - dry in clean still or circulated air - room temperature or warm with hot air gun. Buff or wipe with a clean rag [Gilmour]. Apply mineral oil or WD40 with a soft cloth [Caswell 2003, p. 8]]
   * Step 29 - tungsten disulfide impingment on friction surface wearing   * Step 29 - tungsten disulfide impingment on friction surface wearing
 +  * Step 30 - testing
 +    * [[https://​landingpage.bsigroup.com/​LandingPage/​Series?​UPI=BS%206161|BS 6161 - Methods of test for anodic oxidation coatings on aluminum and its alloys]]
   * Step 30 - package and ship   * Step 30 - package and ship
-  * Reference 
-    * [Altmayer] [[http://​www.nmfrc.org/​pdf/​psf2010/​2010-10-13.pdf|Aluminum - National Metal Finishing Resource Center (NMFRC)]] 
-    * [ASM-02A] ASM Handbook Volume 2A Aluminum Science and Technology 
-    * [ASM-05] ASM Handbook Volume 5 Surface Engineering 
-      * Anodizing by Milton F. Stevenson (<​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​lcv1kf7wd1989yr/​Anodizing-Stevenson.pdf?​dl=0|ASM-05 Stevenson]]</​del>​) 
-    * [ASM-13A] ASM Handbook Volume 13A Corrosion: Fundamentals,​ Testing, and Protection <​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​tfrh7b4zqsp8g6t/​ASMHandbookVol13a-Corrosion.pdf?​dl=0|ASM]]</​del>​ 
-    * [Caswell 2003] Aluminum Anodizing Instructions by [[https://​www.caswellplating.com|Caswell Inc.]] ([[http://​home.kpn.nl/​ronvans/​forums/​anodizing_instructions.pdf|pdf]]) 
-    * [NASF] Aluminum Finishing - AESF Foundation Educational Course <​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​jpxaxgke32ftx7o/​AluminumFinishing-NASF.pdf?​dl=0|NASF]]</​del>​ 
-      * Process Outline for Aluminum Anodizing (Type II) p. 3 
-    * [Hobbyist] Hobbyist Electroplating Made Easy by Randy Nyborg <​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​2o6q74rrhhybj1k/​HobbyistElectroplatingMadeEasy-Nyborg.pdf?​dl=0|Hobbyist]]</​del>​ 
-      * [[http://​www.universitypublishinghouse.net/​plating.html#​hob|www.universitypublishinghouse.net - cost \$6]]  
-    * [Caswell] Caswell LCD Anodizing Instructions (<​del>​[[https://​support.caswellplating.com/​index.php?/​Knowledgebase/​Article/​View/​91/​0/​lcd-anodizing-instructions|Caswell]]</​del>​) 
-    * [Dimetrics] Dimetrics Chemicals in India [[http://​www.dimetricschemicals.com/​anodizingaluminium.html|Process Flow Diagram]] 
-    * [Gilmour] How To Anodize Aluminum by Bill Gilmour (billg519), published 3 Aug 2012, [[https://​youtu.be/​sI-oiBKAyOY|YouTube]] 
-      * How To Anodize Aluminum #3 - Making Electrical Contract With The Part 
-        * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​FXkI_hrCmJQ"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​ 
  
 +=== Henkel Surface Treatments ===
 +  * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​henkel-zirconium-oxide-pretreatment.png|Henkel Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment}}
 +  * [[https://​www.henkel-adhesives.com/​us/​en/​products/​surface-treatments.html|Henkel-adhesives.com]]
 ==== Step 0 - Workpieces ==== ==== Step 0 - Workpieces ====
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​slidefit.jpg?​400|Slide Fit}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​slidefit.jpg?​400|Slide Fit}}
Line 111: Line 115:
 ==== Step 4 - honing or polishing or pickling ==== ==== Step 4 - honing or polishing or pickling ====
     * honing - air blast (dry or wet) with 5 micron aluminum oxide (~ 1000 grit)     * honing - air blast (dry or wet) with 5 micron aluminum oxide (~ 1000 grit)
-      * "Wet (sometimes called vapor blasting, vapor or liquid honing) or dry blasting is very effective in removing particulate soil, oxides, and scale (from a previous heat treatment). Blasting can also provide random, uniform micro-roughness,​ which may contribute to improved adhesion of electroplated deposits. Dry blasting is more severe than wet blasting, because the water acts as a cushion on the impingment of the abrasive particles. The abrasives are usually glass beads, aluminum oxide, silcon carbide, sand, or metal shot of varying particle sizes."​ [NASF p. 7]+      * "Wet (sometimes called vapor blasting, vapor or liquid honing) or dry blasting is very effective in removing particulate soil, oxides, and scale (from a previous heat treatment). Blasting can also provide random, uniform micro-roughness,​ which may contribute to improved adhesion of electroplated deposits. Dry blasting is more severe than wet blasting, because the water acts as a cushion on the impingment of the abrasive particles. The abrasives are usually glass beads, aluminum oxide, silcon carbide, sand, or metal shot of varying particle sizes." ​[[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[NASF p. 7]]]
     * polishing - buff with a cloth wheel with Tripoli abrasive compound. Speeds about 2000 RPM.     * polishing - buff with a cloth wheel with Tripoli abrasive compound. Speeds about 2000 RPM.
     * pickling - acidic treatments on the workpiece to produce a lightly etched surface into which plating crystals can grow     * pickling - acidic treatments on the workpiece to produce a lightly etched surface into which plating crystals can grow
-      * acidic pickling using sulfuric acid or muriatic acid. 5-10 oz of acid per 1 gallon of water. Always add small amount of acid to a large amount of water to reduce the boiling of the water . Pickle the part for 1-2 minutes. [Hobbyist p. 18]+      * acidic pickling using sulfuric acid or muriatic acid. 5-10 oz of acid per 1 gallon of water. Always add small amount of acid to a large amount of water to reduce the boiling of the water . Pickle the part for 1-2 minutes. ​[[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[Hobbyist p. 18]]]
  
 ==== Step 6 - Degreasing ==== ==== Step 6 - Degreasing ====
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 ==== Step 10 - Deoxidize ==== ==== Step 10 - Deoxidize ====
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​asm13a-degreasing.png|Degreasing and Deoxidizing Chemistries for Aluminum Alloy Surfaces}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​asm13a-degreasing.png|Degreasing and Deoxidizing Chemistries for Aluminum Alloy Surfaces}}
-    * [ASM-13a p. 1862 of 2597] +    * [[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[ASM-13a p. 1862 of 2597]]] 
-  * "Many commercial formulations based on other chemistries exist. Some of these can be found in" S. Wernick, R. Pinner, and P.G. Sheasby, The Surface Treatment and Finishing of Aluminum and its Alloys, Vol 1, 5th ed., ASM International,​ 1987, p. 220 [ASM-13a p. 1862 of 2597]+  * 1720 powder + 5% nitric acid 
 +  * Hydrofluoric Acid (dangerous) 
 +    * NH4HF2 = Ammonium BiFluoride 
 +    * HNO3 = Nitric Acid 
 +  * "Many commercial formulations based on other chemistries exist. Some of these can be found in" S. Wernick, R. Pinner, and P.G. Sheasby, The Surface Treatment and Finishing of Aluminum and its Alloys, Vol 1, 5th ed., ASM International,​ 1987, p. 220 [[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[ASM-13a p. 1862 of 2597]]]
  
 ==== Step 11 - Degreasing ==== ==== Step 11 - Degreasing ====
-  * "​Degreasing is performed by dipping the specimen in organic solvents, alcohol, acetone, kerosene, or trichloroethylene,​ or by wiping with cloths permeated with solvent."​ [ASM-13A p. 1903 of 2597] +  * "​Degreasing is performed by dipping the specimen in organic solvents, alcohol, acetone, kerosene, or trichloroethylene,​ or by wiping with cloths permeated with solvent." ​[[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[ASM-13A p. 1903 of 2597]]
-  * "​Preparing aluminum parts for plating typically begins with solvent degreasing whenever possible. Solvent degreasing with the use of ultrasonics is even more effective." ​(NASF Section 3 p. 4)+  * "​Preparing aluminum parts for plating typically begins with solvent degreasing whenever possible. Solvent degreasing with the use of ultrasonics is even more effective." ​[[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[NASF Section 3 p. 4]]]
  
 ==== Step 12 - Etching ==== ==== Step 12 - Etching ====
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       * \$8.39 pure lye [[https://​mydbsupply.com/​578f8dd4a6df1a3681ea25b3/​drain-cleaner-100%25-lye-1lb-12|Drain Cleaner 100% Lye 1 lb]] which is just sodium hydroxide       * \$8.39 pure lye [[https://​mydbsupply.com/​578f8dd4a6df1a3681ea25b3/​drain-cleaner-100%25-lye-1lb-12|Drain Cleaner 100% Lye 1 lb]] which is just sodium hydroxide
         * Roebic Laboratories Crystal Drain Cleaner [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​Roebic-Laboratories-Inc-32-oz-Drain-Cleaner-Crystals/​4751600|Lowes #486650]] \$16 for 2 lbs         * Roebic Laboratories Crystal Drain Cleaner [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​Roebic-Laboratories-Inc-32-oz-Drain-Cleaner-Crystals/​4751600|Lowes #486650]] \$16 for 2 lbs
 +        * \$5.80 ComStar Pure Lye [[https://​www.amazon.com/​ComStar-024924305003-Drain-Opener-White/​dp/​B00PKNBK24/​ref=pd_lpo_sbs_121_t_0?​_encoding=UTF8&​refRID=24Q5NSRPQGHYF51FM6Y7&​th=1|Amazon for 1lb]]
     * 4 oz trisodium phosphate (TSP)     * 4 oz trisodium phosphate (TSP)
       * \$4 for 1 lb [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​SAVOGRAN-1-lb-Box-TSP-Heavy-Duty-Cleaner-10621/​202935861|Home Depot - Savogran TSP]]       * \$4 for 1 lb [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​SAVOGRAN-1-lb-Box-TSP-Heavy-Duty-Cleaner-10621/​202935861|Home Depot - Savogran TSP]]
       * \$10 for 4.5 lbs [[https://​mydbsupply.com/​578f8a66a6df1a3681e9d14e/​tsp-cleaner-4.5-lb|D&​B Supply - Savogran TSP]]       * \$10 for 4.5 lbs [[https://​mydbsupply.com/​578f8a66a6df1a3681e9d14e/​tsp-cleaner-4.5-lb|D&​B Supply - Savogran TSP]]
-    * 2 oz sodium carbonate (sodium bicarbonate ​baking soda)+    * 2 oz sodium carbonate (soda ash) (similar to sodium bicarbonate ​which is baking soda) 
 +      * \$9 for 6 lbs [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​Pool-Time-6-lb-pH-Up-23556PTM/​302895491|pH Up by Pool Time]] Home Depot #​1002760540 
 +      * \$9 for 4 lbs [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​Clorox-Pool-Spa-4-lb-pH-Up-Pool-Balancer/​50332985|Clorox Pool & Spa 4-lb pH Up Pool Balancer]] from Lowes #649731
  
 === Acid Etching === === Acid Etching ===
 +  * Acid Etch - [[https://​cdn.ymaws.com/​anodizing.site-ym.com/​resource/​resmgr/​Docs/​Technical_Bulletin_5-13_Acid.pdf|AAC Technical Bulletin #5-13]]
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​asm13a-acid-etching.png?​600|Acid Etching}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​asm13a-acid-etching.png?​600|Acid Etching}}
     * ASM Handbook Vol 13a - Corrosion, p. 1904 of 2597     * ASM Handbook Vol 13a - Corrosion, p. 1904 of 2597
Line 155: Line 167:
 ==== Step 13 - Desmutting ==== ==== Step 13 - Desmutting ====
   * required if etching was done with city water   * required if etching was done with city water
 +  * Option 1 - dip part in 4-6% sulfuric acid (rest distilled water)
 +  * Option 2 - dip part in nitric acid and water
  
 ==== Step 20 - Neutralize ==== ==== Step 20 - Neutralize ====
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 === Anodizing Station === === Anodizing Station ===
 +  * Max width is 4'
 +    * 1-so it fit between the wheel wells in a pickup truck
 +    * 2-plywood sheets are 4'​x8',​ so can get 4 shelves from one sheet
   * Plastic Toolbox   * Plastic Toolbox
     * aluminum wire     * aluminum wire
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     * aluminum tank bar     * aluminum tank bar
     * drip dry rack     * drip dry rack
-  * DC Rectifier Power Supply 
-    * strap on the bottom of the shelf using pipe/hanger strap 
-      * [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​Oatey-3-4-in-x-25-ft-28-Gauge-Galvanized-Hanger-Strap-33530/​301505501?​MERCH=REC-_-pipsem-_-NA-_-301505501-_-N|Oatey 28-gauge galvanized hanger strap]] \$5.47 for 3/4" x 25' 
-    * Harbor Freight Battery Charger 
-      * CEN-TECH 10/2/50 Amp 12V Manual Charger With Engine Start 
-      * [[https://​www.harborfreight.com/​automotive/​battery-tools-accessories/​10250-amp-12v-manual-charger-with-engine-start-60581.html|HF#​ 60653]] 
-    * VivoHome 853D Rework Station 
-      * DC Power Supply up to 15 volts and 1 AMP 
-      * [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Heavy-Duty-AWG-NAKAMICHI-Alligator/​dp/​B009D4YYYW|Heavy Duty 12 AWG Banana Plugs to Alligator Clips]] 
-    * cable management 
-    * container for leads 
   * Power strip   * Power strip
   * Water Sprayer   * Water Sprayer
Line 199: Line 205:
     * [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=wDA6EEo6dQA|YouTube - Roger'​s DeeWorks]]     * [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=wDA6EEo6dQA|YouTube - Roger'​s DeeWorks]]
       * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​wDA6EEo6dQA"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​       * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​wDA6EEo6dQA"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
 +
  
 === Bucket Floor === === Bucket Floor ===
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   * Aluminum tank bar   * Aluminum tank bar
     * aluminum bar stock     * aluminum bar stock
 +  * Aluminum plate
 +    * [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​M-D-Building-Products-36-in-x-36-in-Plain-Aluminum-Sheet-in-Silver-57000/​100351161|36"​x36"​ Plain Aluminum Sheet]] \$21.98 0.019" thickness, Aisle 23, bay SC3
   * Aluminum wire   * Aluminum wire
     * [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​OOK-50-ft-Aluminum-Hobby-Wire-50176/​100192917|Home Depot - Aluminum Hobby Wire 50ft]] \$3.78 store sku #396300     * [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​OOK-50-ft-Aluminum-Hobby-Wire-50176/​100192917|Home Depot - Aluminum Hobby Wire 50ft]] \$3.78 store sku #396300
   * Titanium wire   * Titanium wire
 +    * [[https://​www.amazon.com/​TEMCo-Titanium-Gauge-Surgical-Resistance/​dp/​B01AV6QNAI/​ref=cm_wl_huc_item|Amazon 24 Gauge by 50 ft]] cost \$9.50 1mm ~ 18 gauge
     * [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​Pure-Titanium-wire-1-mm-by-5-feet-uncut-99-99-Ti-wire-grade-1-18-gauge-AWG/​283188744436|ebay 1mm by 5 ft]] cost \$3.75     * [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​Pure-Titanium-wire-1-mm-by-5-feet-uncut-99-99-Ti-wire-grade-1-18-gauge-AWG/​283188744436|ebay 1mm by 5 ft]] cost \$3.75
     * [[https://​www.caswellplating.com/​tw2.html|Caswell Plating - Titanium Wire]] \$11 for 6-ft 1mm (0.045"​) diameter     * [[https://​www.caswellplating.com/​tw2.html|Caswell Plating - Titanium Wire]] \$11 for 6-ft 1mm (0.045"​) diameter
 +    * [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​Titanium-Wire-Grade-One-1-25-MM-Round-10-ft-Genuine-Pure-Titanium/​281766587077|ebay 1.25mm by 10 ft]] cost \$14
 +  * Duraclamp by Burlingham International - [[https://​www.duraclamp.com|www.duraclamp.com]]
 +  * [[https://​www.titanmf.com/​products/​metal-finishing-equipment/​titan-anode-baskets|Titan Manufacturing - Titanium Baskets]]
 +
 +=== Pumps ===
 +  * Peristaltic Pump - benefit is pump doesn'​t touch the sulfuric acid, it squeezes and rolls the fluid out of the hose. Ben Hamlet at CSI has one of these.
  
 === Anodizing Bath Equipment === === Anodizing Bath Equipment ===
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     * Polypropylene Plastic (PP) is best     * Polypropylene Plastic (PP) is best
       * Lowes Measure-Right mixing containers are PP (except the 5 gal) - [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​United-Solutions-5-Quart-Residential-Paint-Bucket/​3734821|United Solutions 5-Quart Residential Paint Bucket]]       * Lowes Measure-Right mixing containers are PP (except the 5 gal) - [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​United-Solutions-5-Quart-Residential-Paint-Bucket/​3734821|United Solutions 5-Quart Residential Paint Bucket]]
 +      * [[https://​tri-mer.com/​anodize-equipment/​anodizing-equipment.html|Tri-Mer Corp]] sells Anodizing Equipment. Gary Kriesch & Associates LLC (20191015 sent LinkedIn request)
   * Anti-Mist Balls or Fume Control Balls - small plastic hollow spheres (1/4 to 1/2") to help hold heat in the bath, prevent evaporation and reduce fumes   * Anti-Mist Balls or Fume Control Balls - small plastic hollow spheres (1/4 to 1/2") to help hold heat in the bath, prevent evaporation and reduce fumes
     * [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​14mm-Polypropylene-PP-Solid-Plastic-Bearing-Balls-Precision-Sphere/​323631979731|ebay 14mm Polypropylene (PP) solid plastic bearing balls]] \$6 for 20 pieces     * [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​14mm-Polypropylene-PP-Solid-Plastic-Bearing-Balls-Precision-Sphere/​323631979731|ebay 14mm Polypropylene (PP) solid plastic bearing balls]] \$6 for 20 pieces
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   * Air sparging (bubble agitation, aeration)   * Air sparging (bubble agitation, aeration)
     * aquarium air pump connected to a small diameter tube. The tube has small holes to release air. Place tube at the bottom of the tank, under the workpiece to create flow up and over the part to the O2 and H2 gas bubbles as well as circulated the anodizing bath.     * aquarium air pump connected to a small diameter tube. The tube has small holes to release air. Place tube at the bottom of the tank, under the workpiece to create flow up and over the part to the O2 and H2 gas bubbles as well as circulated the anodizing bath.
 +    * [[https://​www.walmart.com/​ip/​Air-Bubble-Disk-Stone-Aerator-Aquarium-Fish-Tank-Pond-Pump-Hydroponic-Oxygen-Fish-Tank-Accessories-with-2-Air-Bubble-Disk-Stone/​558619541|Walmart]] \$10 4.5 L/min
 +    * [[https://​www.amazon.com/​UPMCT-Aquarium-Adjustable-Accessories-Silicone/​dp/​B07YJH539W/​ref=sr_1_58_sspa?​|Amazon $15]] 5 L/min
  
 === Anodizing Bath Solution - Electrolyte === === Anodizing Bath Solution - Electrolyte ===
 +  * need 4-8 g/L of dissolved aluminum in the bath to help with electrosis. Titration test used to measure amount of aluminum
 +  * Acid concentration can be measured by a simple acid/base titration
 +    * Titrating Sulfuric Acid Anodizing Baths by Larry Chesterfield [[https://​www.pfonline.com/​articles/​titrating-sulfuric-acid-anodizing-baths|Products Finishing]]
 +    * Basics of Titration - [[https://​www.mt.com/​us/​en/​home/​library/​guides/​lab-analytical-instruments/​titration-worksheets.html|Mettler Toledo]] - downloaded Basics of Titration [[https://​www.mt.com/​dam/​non-indexed/​po/​ana/​titration/​51725228A_V02.17_Basics%20of%20Titration_Complete_en.pdf|pdf]]
 +    * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​i7jnSaf1Muc"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
 +    * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​d1XTOsnNlgg"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
   * 160-180 g/L (approx 16-18%)   * 160-180 g/L (approx 16-18%)
   * Battery acid to water ratio 1:4   * Battery acid to water ratio 1:4
   * Work should be performed under a hood or well ventilated area as gas bubbles of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) are released   * Work should be performed under a hood or well ventilated area as gas bubbles of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) are released
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​metalcasting:​procedures-anodizing.png|Procedures of anodizing}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​metalcasting:​procedures-anodizing.png|Procedures of anodizing}}
 +    * Aluminum Anodizing by Hideaki Takahashi, ASM Handbook Volume 13A: Corrosion, Fundamentals,​ Testing, and Protection [[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​i6fmrjb2pg1fsx4/​AluminumAnodizing-HideakiTakahashi-ASMHandbookVol13A.pdf?​dl=0|pdf]]
  
 === Sulfuric Acid (MIL-A-8625 Type II) Anodizing Process === === Sulfuric Acid (MIL-A-8625 Type II) Anodizing Process ===
Line 285: Line 311:
   * Ice water 32-40°F   * Ice water 32-40°F
   * Keep the part in the anodizing bath for minimum 30 minutes [Dimetrics] up to 1 hour [Gilmour]   * Keep the part in the anodizing bath for minimum 30 minutes [Dimetrics] up to 1 hour [Gilmour]
 +
 +==== DC Rectifier Power Supply ====
 +  * Personal feeling linear power supplies provide better anodizing than switch power supplies
 +  * [[https://​www.circuitspecialists.com/​bench-power-supply-csi3020x.html|30 Volt DC 20 Amp Linear Bench Power Supply]] for \$229.28 from CircuitSpecialists
 +    * appears to be the same as the Tekpower ​
 +  * [[http://​www.volteq.com/​anodizing-power-supplies.html|Volteq Anodizing Power Supplies]] is also sold under GW Instek and Mastech brand names
 +    * Recommended by Paul Clarke
 +      * HY3020D 30V 20A DC Power Supply for \$280 [[http://​www.volteq.com/​volteq-regulated-variable-dc-power-supply-hy3020d-30v-20a.html|volteq.com]]
 +      * (bad switching) Volteq Power Supply HY5020EX 50V 20A for \$300 [[http://​www.volteq.com/​volteq-power-supply-hy5020ex-50v-20a-over-voltage-over-current-protection.html|volteq hy5020ex]]
 +      * emailed volteqpower@gmail.com asking if linear or switch power supply and confirming it is recommended for anodizing aluminum.
 +    * [[http://​www.mastechpowersupply.com/​anodizing-rectifiers.html|Mastech Anodizing Power Supplies]]
 +    * Volteq Regulated Variable DC Power Supply HT5005D 50V 5A \$140 [[http://​www.volteq.com/​volteq-regulated-variable-dc-power-supply-hy5003d-50v-3a.html|volteq.com]]
 +      * http://​www.volteq.com/​volteq-regulated-variable-dc-power-supply-hy5003d-50v-3a.html
 +    * Volteq Power Supply HY5020EX 50V 20A for \$300 [[http://​www.volteq.com/​volteq-power-supply-hy5020ex-50v-20a-over-voltage-over-current-protection.html|volteq hy5020ex]]
 +    * Volteq High Current Rectifier for Electroplating Anodizing HY30200EX 30V 200A cost \$1600 [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Volteq-Rectifier-Electroplating-Anodizing-HY30200EX/​dp/​B00OBSN6JY/​ref=sr_1_26|Amazon]]
 +    * Tekpower
 +      * TP3020D linear DC power supply, \$324 from [[https://​tekpower.us/​power-supply/​linear-powersupply/​tp3020d.html|TekPower]] or
 +        * \$270 from [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Tekpower-TP3020D-Adjustable-Transformer-Dr-Meter/​dp/​B01FX9HOJW/​ref=sr_1_1?​|Amazon]]
 +      * TP3005T linear DC power supply, 0-30V at 0-5A - \$80 from [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Tekpower-TP3005T-Variable-Linear-Alligator/​dp/​B00ZBCLJSY/​ref=sr_1_6?​|Amazon]]
 +        * good comments about switch vs linear power supply. Figure says should avoid anodizing with a switching power supply
 +      * TP3010E
 +        * [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=xEYRNnYGo0M|YouTube - Tekpower TP3010E Switching Power Supply Teardown & Review]]
 +  * [[http://​www.bkprecision.com|BK Precision]]
 +    * [[https://​www.bkprecision.com/​products/​dc-electronic-loads/​8540-150-w-dc-electronic-load.html|DC Electronic Load Model 8540]] - used to test DC power sources
 +      * 500 Amp Carbon Pile Load Tester [[https://​www.harborfreight.com/​500-amp-carbon-pile-load-tester-91129.html|HF #91129]]
 +      * 100 Amp 6/12V Battery Load Tester [[https://​www.harborfreight.com/​100-Amp-612V-Battery-Load-Tester-61747.html|HF #61747]]
 +      * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​D5d4CIoOln0"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
 +    * REJECT 1-30 Volts and Current is 30 amps (no amp control), Model 1694
 +    * [[https://​www.bkprecision.com/​products/​power-supplies/​1901B-1-32-v-30-a-switching-dc-power-supply.html|Model 1901B Switching DC Power Supply]] which gives current control
 +    * Caswell 30 amp constant current rectifier 0-30V
 +      * \$450 [[https://​www.caswellplating.com/​electroplating-anodizing/​power-supplies/​cc-cv-rectifier-0-30v-30-amp.html|Caswell 1-30A, 1-32 VDC]]
 +  * [[https://​www.dynapower.com/​industries-applications/​metal-finishing-rectifiers/​anodizing-power-supplies/​|www.dynapower.com]]
 +  * SainSmart [[https://​www.sainsmart.com/​products/​uni-t-utp3315tfl-ii-dc-power-supply|DC Power Supply]] \$90 for 30V and 5A
 +    * strap on the bottom of the shelf using pipe/hanger strap
 +      * [[https://​www.homedepot.com/​p/​Oatey-3-4-in-x-25-ft-28-Gauge-Galvanized-Hanger-Strap-33530/​301505501?​MERCH=REC-_-pipsem-_-NA-_-301505501-_-N|Oatey 28-gauge galvanized hanger strap]] \$5.47 for 3/4" x 25'
 +    * Harbor Freight Battery Charger (doesn'​t work with anodizing - will only turn on if connected to a car battery)
 +      * CEN-TECH 10/2/50 Amp 12V Manual Charger With Engine Start
 +      * [[https://​www.harborfreight.com/​automotive/​battery-tools-accessories/​10250-amp-12v-manual-charger-with-engine-start-60581.html|HF#​ 60653]]
 +    * VivoHome 853D Rework Station
 +      * DC Power Supply up to 15 volts and 1 AMP
 +      * [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Heavy-Duty-AWG-NAKAMICHI-Alligator/​dp/​B009D4YYYW|Heavy Duty 12 AWG Banana Plugs to Alligator Clips]]
 +    * cable management
 +    * container for leads
 +
 +
  
 ==== Step 24 - Dye ==== ==== Step 24 - Dye ====
Line 294: Line 365:
     * Kingscote Chemicals, Inc - Miamisburg OH     * Kingscote Chemicals, Inc - Miamisburg OH
       * [[http://​www.anodizingdyes.com|www.anodizingdyes.com]]       * [[http://​www.anodizingdyes.com|www.anodizingdyes.com]]
-      * Bright Dyes Black E-MLW - popular powder dye, has a very high light fastness (8+) and is suitable for long-term outdoor use. [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​tech_505130.pdf|Technical Data Bulletin]] +      ​* **Dyes** 
-      * Gold E-N (F.A.O.) lightfast 8+ [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​product/​gold-e-n-f-a-o/​|Gold E-N]]+      ​* Bright Dyes Black E-MLW - popular powder dye, has a very high light fastness (8+) and is suitable for long-term outdoor use. Cost is $53.67 per pound  
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​product/​black-e-mlw/​|Black E-MLW Product page]] 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​sds_505130.pdf|Safety Data Sheet (SDS)]] 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​tech_505130.pdf|Technical Data Sheet (TDS)]] 
 +      * Gold E-N (F.A.O.) lightfast 8+, cost is $14.70 per pound 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​product/​gold-e-n-f-a-o/​|Gold E-N Product page]] 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​sds_505430.pdf|Safety Data Sheet (SDS)]] 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​tech_505430.pdf|Technical Data Sheet (TDS)]] 
 +      * Blue E-4A, cost is $53.59 per pound 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​product/​blue-e-4a/​|Blue E-4A Product page]] 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​sds_505220.pdf|Safety Data Sheet (SDS)]] 
 +        * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​tech_505220.pdf|Technical Data Sheet (TDS)]] 
 +      * **Additives** 
 +        * MT-90 Mid-temperature,​ low foaming nickel acetate liquid sealer, cost is $40.24 per gallon 
 +          * [[http://​adventuretoward.com/​anodizing/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​msds_502140.pdf|Safety Data Sheet (SDS)]] 
 +          * [[http://​adventuretoward.com/​anodizing/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​05/​msds_502120.pdf|Safety Data Sheet (TDS)]] 
 +        * HT-70D Dispersant High Temperature,​ fully blended nickel acetate powder sealer, cost \$11.85 per lb 
 +          * [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​tech_ht-70d/​|TDS]] - additive designed to prevent the formation of smut during high-temperature sealing 
 +            * Self-Blended Formulation 
 +              * Nickel Acetate 
 +              * HT-70D 
 +              * pH Buffer 
 +        * HT-70 Sealer High Temperature,​ cost \$16.54 per lb 
 +        * Nickel Acetate manufacturers 
 +          * [[https://​www.shepchem.com/​metal-chemistries/​by-metal/​nickel/​|Shepherd Chemical - Nickel Nitrate]]
       * requested samples on 8/29/2019 https://​anodizingdyes.com/​samples/​       * requested samples on 8/29/2019 https://​anodizingdyes.com/​samples/​
     * MacDermid Enthone Industrial Solutions ([[https://​www.macdermidenthone.com/​industrial|www.macdermidenthone.com/​industrial]])     * MacDermid Enthone Industrial Solutions ([[https://​www.macdermidenthone.com/​industrial|www.macdermidenthone.com/​industrial]])
Line 314: Line 409:
   * Caswell sells an [[https://​www.caswellplating.com/​anodizing-sealant-1-lb.html|Anodizing Sealant]] (nickel acetate based)   * Caswell sells an [[https://​www.caswellplating.com/​anodizing-sealant-1-lb.html|Anodizing Sealant]] (nickel acetate based)
   * Bright Dyes sells additional additives to nickel acetate to prevent smut when boiling (HT-70D), see [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​products_additives/​|Bright Dyes Finishing Additives]]   * Bright Dyes sells additional additives to nickel acetate to prevent smut when boiling (HT-70D), see [[https://​anodizingdyes.com/​products_additives/​|Bright Dyes Finishing Additives]]
 +  * Anodic coatings produced by the sulfuric acid process can be sealed by immersing the parts in any one of several solutions. The principal sealing treatments are: 
 +    * (1) Hot water sealing. Hot water sealing is the most common sealing treatment. It consists of immersing the parts in hot or boiling water [200 to 212F (93 to 100C)] for 10 to 30 minutes, depending on coating thickness. This treatment involves hydration and converts some of the surface aluminum oxide to crystalline alpha alumina monohydrate,​ which occupies a greater volume than the alumina from which it was formed. This increase in volume closes and effectively seals the pores. Hot water sealing does not affect the color or appearance of the film. It does increase the corrosion resistance of the coating, but not as much as does dichromate sealing. Steam is sometimes employed in place of hot or boiling water to speed up sealing. 
 +    * (2) Dichromate sealing. The part is immersed in a hot [190 to 210F (88 to 99C)] aqueous solution containing 5 to 6% by weight of sodium or potassium dichromate for 20 to 30 minutes. This treatment imparts a yellow color to the anodic coating, but at the same time it also provides the best corrosion resistance of any of the sealing treatments. This is due to the absorption of corrosion inhibiting chromate into the pores of the film. Dichromate sealing is very useful as protection against stress corrosion in Duralumin and other high strength alloys, particularly in sections where traces of the corrosive sulfuric acid from the anodizing bath might remain. The dichromate treatment is sometimes used as a second sealer over dyed coatings that had first been sealed in a nickel acetate or cobalt acetate bath. To avoid yellowing of the applied color, the strength of the dichromate sealing bath is reduced to 1% sodium or potassium dichromate by weight. The second seal is used to further improve the corrosion resistance of the coating. 
 +    * (3) Nickel or cobalt acetate sealing. Anodic coatings can be sealed by immersing parts in a hot [180 to 210F (82 to 99C)] aqueous solution containing 0.5 to 1% weight of nickel acetate or cobalt acetate for 15 to 20 minutes. This treatment is primarily used to seal porous anodic films after they have been colored with organic dyes. The nickel or cobalt salts are absorbed into the coating where they are precipitated as virtually colorless hydroxides, which help stabilize the color. The pores of the film are sealed in the same bath or given a further hot water sealing in a subsequent treatment. 
 +    * [MIK-HDBK-132A p. 104-5 of 275] - [[http://​everyspec.com/​MIL-HDBK/​MIL-HDBK-0099-0199/​MIL-HDBK-132A_3117/​|MIL-HDBK-132 Rev A from EverySpec]]
 ===== Periodic Table of Elements ===== ===== Periodic Table of Elements =====
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​periodic-table.png?​600|Periodic Table}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​surfacetreatment:​periodic-table.png?​600|Periodic Table}}
Line 321: Line 420:
   * Group 7 halogen top right side - electro negative - want electrons   * Group 7 halogen top right side - electro negative - want electrons
     * Cl = chlorine     * Cl = chlorine
 +
 +===== Concentration by Weight and by Volume =====
 +  * [[https://​www.houghtonintl.com/​sites/​default/​files/​resources/​mass_and_volume_concentration.pdf|Houghton Intl - Determining Concentration by Weight and by Volume]]
  
 ===== Oxidation - Reduction: Transfer of Electrons ===== ===== Oxidation - Reduction: Transfer of Electrons =====
Line 382: Line 484:
   * MIL-A-8625F,​ Type II   * MIL-A-8625F,​ Type II
   * Provides corrosion protection and wear resistance to aluminum parts. Can be applied in a variety of colors or clear for decorative and architectural uses.   * Provides corrosion protection and wear resistance to aluminum parts. Can be applied in a variety of colors or clear for decorative and architectural uses.
- 
-=== References === 
-  * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​P8oesBi7_II"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​ 
  
  
Line 449: Line 548:
         * [[https://​ace.infotrac.net/​getmsds.aspx?​sku=42790|Ace Hardware MSDS]]         * [[https://​ace.infotrac.net/​getmsds.aspx?​sku=42790|Ace Hardware MSDS]]
         * $6.51 per quart at 93% concentration         * $6.51 per quart at 93% concentration
 +      * \$18 [[https://​www.standardplumbing.com/​product/​487837/​Floweasy%201_2-Gallon%20Organic%20Drain%20Cleaner|Floweasy 1/2 Gallon Drain Cleaner]] - 93%
       * \$14 [[https://​www.truevalue.com/​professional-drain-opener-sulfuric-acid-64-oz|Rooto Professional Drain Opener, 64-oz]] at TrueValue, item# 751198       * \$14 [[https://​www.truevalue.com/​professional-drain-opener-sulfuric-acid-64-oz|Rooto Professional Drain Opener, 64-oz]] at TrueValue, item# 751198
       * \$10 [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​CLEAN-SHOT-32-oz-Sulfuric-Acid-Drain-Opener/​3371170|Clean Shot Drain Opener 32oz]] - 93%       * \$10 [[https://​www.lowes.com/​pd/​CLEAN-SHOT-32-oz-Sulfuric-Acid-Drain-Opener/​3371170|Clean Shot Drain Opener 32oz]] - 93%
Line 507: Line 607:
       * electrolytic coloring       * electrolytic coloring
         * {{engineer-mechanical:​metalcasting:​electrolytic-coloring.png|Electrolytic Coloring}}         * {{engineer-mechanical:​metalcasting:​electrolytic-coloring.png|Electrolytic Coloring}}
-    * Sealing - "​Sealing is usually performed by dipping in boiling water...A 10 min sealing treatment is sufficient to seal the pores completely in boiling water..." ​(ASM Handbook Volume 13A Corrosion: Fundamentals,​ Testing, and Protection, p. 1907 of 2597)+    * Sealing - "​Sealing is usually performed by dipping in boiling water...A 10 min sealing treatment is sufficient to seal the pores completely in boiling water..." ​[[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[ASM Handbook Volume 13A Corrosion: Fundamentals,​ Testing, and Protection, p. 1907 of 2597]]]
 ==== Surface Coating - Electroless Nickel ==== ==== Surface Coating - Electroless Nickel ====
   * Provides very high corrosion and wear resistance. Also known as EN.   * Provides very high corrosion and wear resistance. Also known as EN.
Line 528: Line 628:
     * Using an air blast at <125 PSI and nozzle size, spray tungsten disulfide on the part until you see a uniform silver gray color film appearance     * Using an air blast at <125 PSI and nozzle size, spray tungsten disulfide on the part until you see a uniform silver gray color film appearance
   * Step 4 - tape test   * Step 4 - tape test
-    * "A pressure-sensitive-film-backed tape with an adhesion of not less than 45 ounces per inch (0.49 N/mm), shall be applied to a flat surface of a coated specimen, rolled in place, and rapidly removed in accordance with ASTM D 2510, Procedure B. The lifting of flakes or particles of the coating from the specimen, exposing the basis metal, is not acceptable. A uniform deposit of powdery material clinging to the tape is acceptable." ​(AMS2530A 3.4.1 Adhesion)+    * "A pressure-sensitive-film-backed tape with an adhesion of not less than 45 ounces per inch (0.49 N/mm), shall be applied to a flat surface of a coated specimen, rolled in place, and rapidly removed in accordance with ASTM D 2510, Procedure B. The lifting of flakes or particles of the coating from the specimen, exposing the basis metal, is not acceptable. A uniform deposit of powdery material clinging to the tape is acceptable." ​[[surfacetreatment#​references and standards|[AMS2530A 3.4.1 Adhesion]]]
     * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​iLLpKgQu0Yo"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​     * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​iLLpKgQu0Yo"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
  
Line 596: Line 696:
  
   * [Q] do you recommend using a fish tank air bubbler to agitation the solution, could I just submerge an air hose?   * [Q] do you recommend using a fish tank air bubbler to agitation the solution, could I just submerge an air hose?
-==== Reference Standards ==== +
-  * ASTM B 183 - Practice for preparation of low-carbon steel for electroplating +
-  * ASTM B 242 - Practice for preparation of high-carbon steel for electroplating +
-  * ASTM B 322 - Practice for cleaning metals prior to electroplating +
-  * ASTM F21 Water Break Test +
-  * ASTM F22 - Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test +
-    * [[https://​www.astm.org/​Standards/​F22.htm|ASTM F22 - 13 Water Break Test]] +
-    * [[https://​www.scribd.com/​document/​405803923/​F-22-13|Scribd]] +
-    * [[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​2jamva5xwejwup2/​ASTM-F22-13-WaterBreakTest.pdf?​dl=0|pdf]] +
-  * MIL-HDBK-132 (Ord) - Military handbook, protective finishes +
-    * [[http://​everyspec.com/​MIL-HDBK/​MIL-HDBK-0099-0199/​MIL-HDBK-132A_3117/​|everyspec.com - MIL-HDBK-132 Rev. A]] +
-  * MIL-DTL-53072 Water Break Test +
-    * [[http://​everyspec.com/​MIL-SPECS/​MIL-SPECS-MIL-DTL/​MIL-DTL-53072C_11404/​|Chemical Agent Resistant Coating System]]+
 ===== Education ===== ===== Education =====
   * ASM International   * ASM International
Line 625: Line 713:
  
 ===== Associations ===== ===== Associations =====
-  * Aluminum Anodizers Council (AAC) - [[http://​www.anodizing.org|www.anodizing.org]]+  * Aluminum Anodizers Council (AAC) - [[https://​www.anodizing.org|www.anodizing.org]] 
 +  * Aluminum Extruders Council (AEC) - [[https://​www.aec.org|www.aec.org]] 
 +  * International Hard Anodizing Association (IHAA) - [[https://​www.ihanodizing.com|www.ihanodizing.com]]
   * Products Finishing - [[http://​www.pfonline.com|www.pfonline.com]]   * Products Finishing - [[http://​www.pfonline.com|www.pfonline.com]]
   * National Association for Surface Finishing - [[http://​www.nasf.org|www.nasf.org]]   * National Association for Surface Finishing - [[http://​www.nasf.org|www.nasf.org]]
 +===== Anodizing Equipment =====
 +  * Anodizing Thickness Gauge
 +    * [[https://​www.checkline.com/​product/​6000AN-Series|Checkline PosiTector Anodizing Thickness Gauge]]
 +  * Hard Anodizing - can't I just use a micrometer and measure a change in thickness (0.002 +/- 0.0002), see [[https://​www.checkline.com/​product/​6000AN-Series|Measurement of Anodizing Thickness]]
 +
 ===== Chemical Manufactures and Resellers ===== ===== Chemical Manufactures and Resellers =====
 +  * American Elements - [[https://​www.americanaelements.com|www.americanelements.com]]
 +    * Nickel Acetate - request a quote on 10/16/2019
 +  * Brenntag - [[https://​www.brenntag.com/​en-us/​products/​index.jsp|products]]
 +    * [[https://​www.brenntag.com/​en-us/​products/​sulfuric-acid/​index.jsp|Sulfuric Acid]]
 +  * Henkel Adhesive Technologies - [[https://​www.henkel-adhesives.com/​us/​en/​products/​surface-treatments.html|www.henkel-adhesives.com]]
 +  * Houghton Intl (Quaker Houghton) [[https://​www.houghtonintl.com|www.houghtonintl.com]] - [[https://​www.houghtonintl.com/​sites/​default/​files/​resources/​houghton_metal_finishing_brochure_final.pdf|Metal Finishing Brochure]]
 +    * Dan Bishopp, Metal Finishing Sales Manager: mobile: 765-771-9892,​ dan.bishopp@quakerhoughton.com
 +    * Anodizing Hardcoat Additives A-520
 +      * A high speed liquid additive used with sulfuric acid anodizing process to produce hard coatings for architectural use as well as other applications
 +    * Deoxidizing - Houghto Deox A-1745L [[https://​www.houghtonintl.com/​en/​products/​houghto-deox-1745l-0|1745L]]
 +      * also 1720 powder + 5% nitric acid (much safer than using nitric acid with ammonium bifluoride)
 +    * Desmutting - Houghto Deox A-1745L
 +    * Etching - Houghto-Etch AX-1897
 +    * Sealing - nickel acetate ​
 +      * [[https://​www.houghtonintl.com/​en/​products/​houghto-seal%C2%AE-617|Houghto-Seal A-617]]
 +      * [[https://​www.houghtonintl.com/​en/​products/​houghto-seal%C2%AE-620|Houghto-Seal A-620]]
 +        * formulated with special organic additives that effectively seal all types of anodic coatings without smutting, powdering or yellowing after exposure to sunlight
 +      * Houghto-Seal A-633
 +        * a liquid concentration additive for hot water seal that acts as a sealing accelerator and anti-smutting agent
   * Palm International,​ Inc   * Palm International,​ Inc
     * [[http://​www.palminc.com/​|www.palminc.com]]     * [[http://​www.palminc.com/​|www.palminc.com]]
 +  * Reliant Clariant - [[http://​www.reliantaluminumproducts.com/​index.php/​anodizing-products|www.reliantaluminumproducts.com]]
 +    * [[http://​www.reliantaluminumproducts.com/​images/​stories/​tech_data/​Anodal_Aluseal.pdf|Anodal Aluseal]] seal smut preventing additive for high temperature nickel acetate seals
 +      * 4 g/l nickel Acetate
 +      * 1 g/l benzoic acid
 +      * 2 g/l Anodal Aluseal
 +  * SIC Technologies - [[http://​sictechnologies.com/​sic-products/​anodizing-products/​|Anodizing Products]]
   * Thatcher Group, [[http://​www.tchem.com|www.tchem.com]]   * Thatcher Group, [[http://​www.tchem.com|www.tchem.com]]
   * Univar Solutions, [[http://​www.univarsolutions.com/​markets/​chemical-manufacturing/​|www.univarsolutions.com]]   * Univar Solutions, [[http://​www.univarsolutions.com/​markets/​chemical-manufacturing/​|www.univarsolutions.com]]
     * filled out online form, jeff@nimshelp.me on 7/31/2019     * filled out online form, jeff@nimshelp.me on 7/31/2019
 +  * US Specialty Color Corporation
 +    * [[http://​www.usspecialty.com/​product_dyes.php|Anodizing Dyes]]
   * Land View in Rupert ID, [[http://​www.lvf.com|www.lvf.com]]   * Land View in Rupert ID, [[http://​www.lvf.com|www.lvf.com]]
     * Jake Harman, Manager     * Jake Harman, Manager
Line 661: Line 783:
   * Quality Plating Co., Inc. [[http://​www.qualityplating.com|www.qualityplating.com]]   * Quality Plating Co., Inc. [[http://​www.qualityplating.com|www.qualityplating.com]]
   * Miller Consolidate Industries, Inc. [[http://​www.millerconsolidated.com/​|www.millerconsolidated.com]]   * Miller Consolidate Industries, Inc. [[http://​www.millerconsolidated.com/​|www.millerconsolidated.com]]
 +  * Pioneer Metal Finishing
 +    * [[https://​www.pioneermetal.com/​|www.pioneermetal.com]]
 +  * Pries Enterprises,​ Inc
 +    * [[https://​www.priesenterprises.com/​anodizing/​|priesenterprises.com]]
   * Reactive Metals [[https://​www.reactivemetals.com/​anodizers-accessories|www.reactivemetals.com]]   * Reactive Metals [[https://​www.reactivemetals.com/​anodizers-accessories|www.reactivemetals.com]]
-    * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="https://www.youtube.com/​embed/​2qTZmz8HoOs" frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen><​/iframe><​/html>+    * [[https://youtu.be/​2qTZmz8HoOs|YouTube video]] 
 +  * Techevon LLC Metal Finishing Solutions 
 +    * [[http://www.techevon.com/​|www.techevon.com]]
  
 ===== Employment ===== ===== Employment =====
Line 687: Line 815:
           * Drive fork lift to load/unload items as needed           * Drive fork lift to load/unload items as needed
           * Assist with other tasks as given           * Assist with other tasks as given
 +
 +===== Newsletter =====
 +  - 00.01 Cover - Title Page
 +  - 00.02 Table of Contents
 +  - 01.01 Chapter 1
 +  - 02.01 Chapter 2
 +  - 03.01 Chapter 3
 +  - 04.01 References
 +  - 05.01 Appendix A
 +  - 05.02 Appendix B
 +  - 99.99 Back Cover
 +  - Change log
 +    - version (1.2) YYYY-MM-DD Title
 +    - latest to oldest
 +  - Aluminum Anodizing by Hideaki Takahashi (ASM Handbook Volume 13A Corrosion)
 +  - Excel Anodizing Calculator
 +  - Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
 +  - Shopping List - where to buy chemicals
 +===== References and Standards =====
 +  * [Anodizing wiki] - [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Anodizing|https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Anodizing]]
 +  * [ASM Handbook Vol13A: Corrosion] - ASM Handbook Volume 13A: Corrosion
 +    * Aluminum Anodizing by Hideaki Takahashi, [[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​i6fmrjb2pg1fsx4/​AluminumAnodizing-HideakiTakahashi-ASMHandbookVol13A.pdf?​dl=0|pdf]]
 +  * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​P8oesBi7_II"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
 +  * [Altmayer] [[http://​www.nmfrc.org/​pdf/​psf2010/​2010-10-13.pdf|Aluminum - National Metal Finishing Resource Center (NMFRC)]]
 +  * [ASM-02A] ASM Handbook Volume 2A Aluminum Science and Technology
 +  * [ASM-05] ASM Handbook Volume 5 Surface Engineering
 +    * Anodizing by Milton F. Stevenson (<​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​lcv1kf7wd1989yr/​Anodizing-Stevenson.pdf?​dl=0|ASM-05 Stevenson]]</​del>​)
 +  * [ASM-13A] ASM Handbook Volume 13A Corrosion: Fundamentals,​ Testing, and Protection <​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​tfrh7b4zqsp8g6t/​ASMHandbookVol13a-Corrosion.pdf?​dl=0|ASM]]</​del>​
 +  * [Caswell 2003] Aluminum Anodizing Instructions by [[https://​www.caswellplating.com|Caswell Inc.]] ([[http://​home.kpn.nl/​ronvans/​forums/​anodizing_instructions.pdf|pdf]])
 +  * [NASF] Aluminum Finishing - AESF Foundation Educational Course <​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​jpxaxgke32ftx7o/​AluminumFinishing-NASF.pdf?​dl=0|NASF]]</​del>​
 +    * Process Outline for Aluminum Anodizing (Type II) p. 3
 +  * [Hobbyist] Hobbyist Electroplating Made Easy by Randy Nyborg <​del>​[[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​2o6q74rrhhybj1k/​HobbyistElectroplatingMadeEasy-Nyborg.pdf?​dl=0|Hobbyist]]</​del>​
 +    * [[http://​www.universitypublishinghouse.net/​plating.html#​hob|www.universitypublishinghouse.net - cost \$6]] 
 +  * [Caswell] Caswell LCD Anodizing Instructions (<​del>​[[https://​support.caswellplating.com/​index.php?/​Knowledgebase/​Article/​View/​91/​0/​lcd-anodizing-instructions|Caswell]]</​del>​)
 +  * [Dimetrics] Dimetrics Chemicals in India [[http://​www.dimetricschemicals.com/​anodizingaluminium.html|Process Flow Diagram]]
 +  * [Gilmour] How To Anodize Aluminum by Bill Gilmour (billg519), published 3 Aug 2012, [[https://​youtu.be/​sI-oiBKAyOY|YouTube]]
 +    * How To Anodize Aluminum #3 - Making Electrical Contract With The Part
 +      * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​FXkI_hrCmJQ"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
 +
 +
 +==== Standards ====
 +  * AMS 2468 - [[https://​www.sae.org/​standards/​content/​ams2468/​|Hard Anodic Coating Treatment of Aluminum Alloys]]
 +  * AMS 2469 - [[https://​www.sae.org/​standards/​content/​ams2469|Hard Anodic Coating on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys]]
 +  * ASTM B 183 - Practice for preparation of low-carbon steel for electroplating
 +  * ASTM B 242 - Practice for preparation of high-carbon steel for electroplating
 +  * ASTM B 322 - Practice for cleaning metals prior to electroplating
 +  * ASTM F21 Water Break Test
 +  * ASTM F22 - Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test
 +    * [[https://​www.astm.org/​Standards/​F22.htm|ASTM F22 - 13 Water Break Test]]
 +    * [[https://​www.scribd.com/​document/​405803923/​F-22-13|Scribd]]
 +    * [[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​2jamva5xwejwup2/​ASTM-F22-13-WaterBreakTest.pdf?​dl=0|pdf]]
 +  * BS EN 2536
 +  * BS ISO 10074 - Anodizing of Aluminum and its alloys - Specification for hard anodic oxidation coatings on aluminum and its alloys
 +    * [[https://​global.ihs.com/​doc_detail.cfm?&​document_name=BS%20ISO%2010074&​item_s_key=00539074&​item_key_date=820101|IHS Markit Standards Store]]
 +  * DEF STAN 03-25 Sulfuric Acid Anodizing of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
 +    * [[https://​www.scribd.com/​document/​35830702/​dstan-03-25|Scribd - Defense Standard DEF STAN 03-25]]
 +  * DEF STAN 03-26
 +  * MIL-A-8625 Anodic Coatings for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
 +    * [[http://​everyspec.com/​MIL-SPECS/​MIL-SPECS-MIL-A/​MIL-A-8625F_2377/​MIL-A-8625F from EverySpec]]
 +  * MIL-HDBK-132 (Ord) - Military handbook, protective finishes
 +    * [[http://​everyspec.com/​MIL-HDBK/​MIL-HDBK-0099-0199/​MIL-HDBK-132A_3117/​|everyspec.com - MIL-HDBK-132 Rev. A]]
 +  * MIL-DTL-53072 Water Break Test
 +    * [[http://​everyspec.com/​MIL-SPECS/​MIL-SPECS-MIL-DTL/​MIL-DTL-53072C_11404/​|Chemical Agent Resistant Coating System]]
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