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engineer-mechanical:machining [2019/02/12 16:16]
jjensen [CSI MANT 140]
engineer-mechanical:machining [2019/03/29 21:54] (current)
jjensen [Machining Student Tool List]
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         * \$90 [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Anytime-Tools-Micrometer-Precision-Machinist/​dp/​B0045UZGSC/​ref=sr_1_2?​s=industrial&​ie=UTF8&​qid=1534547946&​sr=1-2&​keywords=Anytime+Tools+Premium+Outside+Micrometer+Set+0-4%22|Micrometer set by Anytime Tools]]         * \$90 [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Anytime-Tools-Micrometer-Precision-Machinist/​dp/​B0045UZGSC/​ref=sr_1_2?​s=industrial&​ie=UTF8&​qid=1534547946&​sr=1-2&​keywords=Anytime+Tools+Premium+Outside+Micrometer+Set+0-4%22|Micrometer set by Anytime Tools]]
         * \$65 [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​Outside-Micrometer-Mic-Set-0-4-0-0001-Precision-Machinist-Tool-Carbide-Tip/​183097369196?​epid=26021415536&​hash=item2aa174226c:​g:​EQUAAOSwwNBalEsk|ebay Micrometer Set]]         * \$65 [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​Outside-Micrometer-Mic-Set-0-4-0-0001-Precision-Machinist-Tool-Carbide-Tip/​183097369196?​epid=26021415536&​hash=item2aa174226c:​g:​EQUAAOSwwNBalEsk|ebay Micrometer Set]]
 +        * \$140 [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Anytime-Tools-MICROMETER-Machinist-Precision/​dp/​B000JMW4AS?​ref_=bl_dp_s_web_10938134011|Micrometer set by Anytime Tools 0-6"]]
 +        * \$125 [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​SHARS-0-6-6-Premium-Outside-Micrometer-Set-Solid-Metal-Frame-0001-Carbide-Tip/​331375072727|SHARS 0-6" Premium Outside Micrometer Set]]
     * Micrometer, Screw Thread - measure thread pitch diameter     * Micrometer, Screw Thread - measure thread pitch diameter
       * \$56 [[https://​www.shars.com/​0-1-screw-thread-micrometer|Shars Tool Company]]       * \$56 [[https://​www.shars.com/​0-1-screw-thread-micrometer|Shars Tool Company]]
 +    * Surface Roughness Camparator
 +      * [[https://​www.shars.com/​surface-roughness-camparator|Shars Surface Roughness Camparator]] order no. 303-9408 cost \$110
     * Tape Measure ​     * Tape Measure ​
       * Decimal inches and cm - [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Lufkin-P2210MEX-10-Feet-Engineers-Measure/​dp/​B009S6MYV0|Lufkin 2210MEX]]       * Decimal inches and cm - [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Lufkin-P2210MEX-10-Feet-Engineers-Measure/​dp/​B009S6MYV0|Lufkin 2210MEX]]
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         * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​carbidetippedstylecande.png|Figure 1-0 American National Standard Style C and E Carbide Tipped Tool, Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 769-770}}         * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​carbidetippedstylecande.png|Figure 1-0 American National Standard Style C and E Carbide Tipped Tool, Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 769-770}}
     * C6 Carbide Inserts with chipbreaker TCMT 32.52 - \$33 [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​TCMT-32-52-Carbide-Insert-C6-Grade-1-2-5-8-3-4-Turning-Tools-Pk-10-/​131572093049?​hash=item1ea24ed079|ebay - All Industrial ALL-20206]]     * C6 Carbide Inserts with chipbreaker TCMT 32.52 - \$33 [[https://​www.ebay.com/​itm/​TCMT-32-52-Carbide-Insert-C6-Grade-1-2-5-8-3-4-Turning-Tools-Pk-10-/​131572093049?​hash=item1ea24ed079|ebay - All Industrial ALL-20206]]
 +    * [[http://​catalogs.kennametal.com/​BookshelfView/​|Kennametal Master Catalog - Turning Tools]]
 +  * Square Shape, Kennametal
 +    * **SNMG432FW KCP10** order# 3749368 - has 8 cutting edges (4 corners and top & bottom)
 +      * SN = Square Negative
 +      * MG =
 +      * 4 = 
 +      * 32 = 
 +      * FW = Finish Wiper, the wiper feature does a second level cut to provide a smoother finish
 +      * KCP10 grade can cut without oil (KC730 needs oil)
 +      * \$16.66 from [[https://​www.mscdirect.com/​product/​details/​08332843?​orderedAs=3749368&​pxno=23226822&​refnum=23226822&​rItem=08332843|MSC Industrial Direct]]
 +    * Holder, Kennametal - **MSRNR124B** order# 1096149 - has a 15° lead angle
 +      * \$89 from [[https://​www.mscdirect.com/​product/​details/​06571749?​fromRR=Y|MSC Industrial Direct]]
  
 === CSI Toolholders and Inserts === === CSI Toolholders and Inserts ===
   * Insert Geometry for Cold Rolled/Mild Steel   * Insert Geometry for Cold Rolled/Mild Steel
     * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-insert-geometry-steel.png|Kennametal Insert Geometry and Grade for Cold Rolled Steel}}     * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-insert-geometry-steel.png|Kennametal Insert Geometry and Grade for Cold Rolled Steel}}
 +  * Grade KCP10B produces excellent surface finishes on most steels and cast irons - problem have to high SFM and RPM
 +    * [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​TCMT3252LF-KCP10B-P418037.aspx|TCMT3252LF KCP10B]]
 +  * Grade KCP10 produces excellent surface finishes on most steels and cast irons - problem have to have high SFM and RPM
 +    * [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​TCMT3252LF-KCP10-P231192.aspx|TCMT3252LF KCP10]]
 +  * Grade KC5010 (KC730 and KC5010 use same carbide but KC730 can run 50 SFM slower which is needed on a manual lathe) works well on 1018 Cold Rolled Steel, only problem is the insert tip breaks easily - Jim at CSI.edu purchases these
 +    * KCU10 is a newer version of KC5010, so basically the same
   * Grade KC730 is best for low RPM, other inserts want to run at 1600 RPM min. Has a PVD thin gold coating.   * Grade KC730 is best for low RPM, other inserts want to run at 1600 RPM min. Has a PVD thin gold coating.
 +    * **TCMT3252LF KC730 order# 1162011 - Randy at Kennametal likes this best for manual machining**
 +      * [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​TCMT3252LF-KC730-P17586.aspx|Carbide Depot - TCMT3252LF KC730]] 2LF = 2 is 1/32 = 0.030 min depth of cut, LF=Light Finish
 +      * 1/32 nose radius gives a better finish than the 1/64
 +      * TCMT3252LF KCP25B 5698121 (works at low RPM, works with hot-rolled)
 +      * TCGT3252LF KC5010 order# 1522949 - very good ground insert, gives good finish (good for Aluminum)
     * RPM = 3.82 SFM / Diam  (revolutions per minute)     * RPM = 3.82 SFM / Diam  (revolutions per minute)
     * SFM = 0.262 X Diam X RPM (surface feet per minute)     * SFM = 0.262 X Diam X RPM (surface feet per minute)
     * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-cuttingspeed.png|Kennametal Cutting Speed for Cold Rolled Steel}}     * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-cuttingspeed.png|Kennametal Cutting Speed for Cold Rolled Steel}}
   * Carbide Turning Insert   * Carbide Turning Insert
-    * #1162011 TCMT32.52 LF Grade KC730 - can run at slower RPM like 400+    * #1162011 TCMT32.52 LF Grade KC730 - can run at slower RPM like 400 [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​TCMT3252LF-KC730-P17586.aspx|TCMT3252LF KC730]] 
 +    * TCMT325211 has nose radius 1/32, is it available in grade KC730 or KC5010? [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​TCMT3252LF-KC5010-P57487.aspx|TCMT3252LF KC5010]]
   * Carbide Threading Inserts   * Carbide Threading Inserts
     * #1112958 for aluminum and can be used with mild steel     * #1112958 for aluminum and can be used with mild steel
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   * Kennametal Catalog#   * Kennametal Catalog#
     * NTP3R     * NTP3R
-    * NT3RK (recommended by Randy Kopka, Senior Analyst, Customer Application Support, na.techsupport@kennametal.com 1-800-835-3668) +    * NT3RK (recommended by Randy Kopka, Senior Analyst, Customer Application Support, na.techsupport@kennametal.com 1-800-835-3668, subject line - attention Randy
 +  * Sandpaper with Cloth Backing to add a fine finish to 1018 steel 
 +    * [[https://​www.wttool.com/​index/​page/​category/​category_id/​19573/​|Superior Abrasives Shur-Kut Premium Shop Rolls]]
  
 +==== Select Carbide Insert Example ====
 +  * Step 1 - identify material cutting - P
 +  * Step 2 - select insert geometry - Kennametal SNMG
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-step1-insertgeometry.png|Kennametal Carbide Insert Geometry}}
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-insert-finishwiper.png|Kennametal Insert Geometry - Negative Wiper}}
 +    * Minimum depth of cut .013" at .005 in/rev
 +    * Minimum depth of cut .008" at .008 in/rev
 +    * Depth of cut range: .008" to .080"
 +    * feed rate range: .005 to .020 in/rev
 +  * Step 3 - select insert grade - KCP10
 +    * 450 SFM for Steel (blue P0 to P6)
 +      * KCP30B
 +      * KCP30
 +      * KCP40B
 +      * KCP40
 ===== Safety ===== ===== Safety =====
   * [[http://​www.stonybrook.edu/​ehs/​lab/​general-lab-safety/​machine-hazards.shtml|Stony Brook Machine Shop Safety]]   * [[http://​www.stonybrook.edu/​ehs/​lab/​general-lab-safety/​machine-hazards.shtml|Stony Brook Machine Shop Safety]]
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     * Layout is the initial step in any machining process. Understanding the concepts and proper utilization of semi-precision and precision layout techniques is important for every machinist. The machinist should know the function of a scriber and the types of layout instruments used with surface plates.     * Layout is the initial step in any machining process. Understanding the concepts and proper utilization of semi-precision and precision layout techniques is important for every machinist. The machinist should know the function of a scriber and the types of layout instruments used with surface plates.
  
-==== Cutting Speed Formulas ==== + 
-  * Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 1016 +
-  * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​cutting-speed-formulas-machinery27th-p1016.png|Figure 1-0 Cutting Speed Formulas, Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th p. 1016}}+
  
 === Turning Speeds and Feeds and Depth of Cut === === Turning Speeds and Feeds and Depth of Cut ===
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     *      * 
   * Step 2 - calculate the feed rate (IPR, inches per revolution)   * Step 2 - calculate the feed rate (IPR, inches per revolution)
-  * Step 2 - desired cut diameter in inches of workpiece+
   * Definition of cutting speed   * Definition of cutting speed
     * feet per minute (fpm)     * feet per minute (fpm)
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   * What about Material Removal Rate (MRR)? Seems like a balance, more material you remove the more wear and tear on equipment.   * What about Material Removal Rate (MRR)? Seems like a balance, more material you remove the more wear and tear on equipment.
  
-==== Turning - Tool bit selection ====+==== Turning ​- Step 1 - Select Workpiece Material Group ==== 
 +  * K - Cast Iron 
 +  * Tool Steel 
 +  * Stainless Steel 
 +  * P - Steel 
 +    * P0 
 +      * ASTM A36 - hot rolled steel 
 +      * AISI 1018 - cold rolled steel 
 +    * P1 
 +      * AISI 12L14 - cold rolled steel 
 +  * Aluminum 
 +  * Delrin 
 +  * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-material-groups.png|Kennametal Material Groups}} 
 + 
 +==== Turning - Step 2 - Tool bit and insert geometry ​selection ==== 
 +  * Triangle Shape - TCMT32.52 LF Grade KC730 
 +    * Kennametal# 1162011 [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​TCMT3252LF-KC730-P17586.aspx|Carbide Depot - TCMT3252LF KC730]] at \$16 each 
 +    * more economical, get 3 tips instead of 2, downside larger insert so difficult to get into tight spaces 
 +  * Diamond Shape - DPGT3251HP KC5010 
 +    * Kennametal# 1310719 [[http://​www.carbidedepot.com/​DPGT3251HP-KC5010-P56802.aspx|Carbide Depot - DPGT3251HP KC5010]] at \$14.50 each 
 +      * Note HP is High Positive and typically used on Aluminum 
 +    * use when need to get into tight areas on the lathe 
 +  * Square Shape, Kennametal 
 +    * SNMG432FW KCP10 order# 3749368 - has 8 cutting edges (4 corners and top & bottom) 
 +      * SN = Square Negative 
 +      * FW = Finish Wiper, the wiper feature does a second level cut to provide a smoother finish 
 +      * KCP10 grade can cut without oil (KC730 needs oil) 
 +      * \$16.66 from [[https://​www.mscdirect.com/​product/​details/​08332843?​orderedAs=3749368&​pxno=23226822&​refnum=23226822&​rItem=08332843|MSC Industrial Direct]] 
 +    * Holder, Kennametal - MSRNR124B order# 1096149 - has a 15° lead angle 
 +      * \$89 from [[https://​www.mscdirect.com/​product/​details/​06571749?​fromRR=Y|MSC Industrial Direct]] 
 +    * If experience chatter, try the following 
 +      * increase or decrease RPM 
 +      * tighten workpiece tailstock
   * Kennametal Catalog Numbers - [[https://​www.kennametal.com/​en/​resources/​metalworking-literature.html|Interactive Catalog]]   * Kennametal Catalog Numbers - [[https://​www.kennametal.com/​en/​resources/​metalworking-literature.html|Interactive Catalog]]
     * CNMG432FP     * CNMG432FP
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       * 4 = 4/64" or 1/16"       * 4 = 4/64" or 1/16"
  
 +==== Turning - Step 3 - Insert Grade ====
 +  * Manual Lathe - machining cold rolled steel
 +  * KC730 is best grade for this, even with 1600 RPM and 0.0012 in/rev (#1 IATX gear setting on Sharp lathe) feed the finish is smooth but looks blemished
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-kc730-finish.jpg?​600|Figure 1-0 KC730 Finish}}
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-kc730-finish2.jpg?​600|Figure 1-0 KC730 Finish - Close up}}
 +  * KCU10 is a newer version of KC5010 (owned by csi.edu), both are a good choice
 +  * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-select-grade.png|Figure 1-0 Insert Grade - KCU10}}
 +
 +==== Turning - Step 4 - Feed Rate and Depth of Cut ====
 +  * Lookup manufacture recommended feed rate and depth of cut 
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-depth-of-cut.png|Figure 1-0 Depth of Cut}}
 +
 +==== Turning - Step 5 - Cutting Speed (SFM or FPM) ====
 +  * Lookup cutting speed of insert grade
 +    * KC730 has 400 SFM (Surface Feet per Minute or FPM=Feet Per Minute)
 +    * KCU10 and KC5010 has 450 SFM
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​kennametal-cutting-speed.png|Figure 1-0 Cutting Speed Chart - Kennametal}}
 +  * Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 1016
 +  * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​cutting-speed-formulas-machinery27th-p1016.png|Figure 1-0 Cutting Speed Formulas, Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th p. 1016}}
 +
 +
 +
 +==== Turning - Step 6 - Spindle Speed (RPM) ====
 +  * Lookup Spindle Speed (RPM = Revolutions Per Minute)
 +  * Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th Edition, p. 1016
 +  * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​cutting-speed-machinery-handbook28th-p988.png|Figure 1-0 RPM for Various Speeds, Machinery'​s Handbook, 28th p. 988}}
 ===== How to make these parts ===== ===== How to make these parts =====
   * How would I make a flange? [[http://​www.allied-grp.com/​warrenalloy/​products/​flanges|Allied Group Flanges]] has several flanges that can be purchased. When I made a flange, the hole pattern only fit in one setting, that is if I rotate the flange, then the holes didn't line up. This is due to the difficulty of laying out the pattern and the drill bit on the drill press wandering a little bit.   * How would I make a flange? [[http://​www.allied-grp.com/​warrenalloy/​products/​flanges|Allied Group Flanges]] has several flanges that can be purchased. When I made a flange, the hole pattern only fit in one setting, that is if I rotate the flange, then the holes didn't line up. This is due to the difficulty of laying out the pattern and the drill bit on the drill press wandering a little bit.
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   * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​lathe-cross-compound-slides.png|Figure 1-0 Lathe - Cross and Compound Slides}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​lathe-cross-compound-slides.png|Figure 1-0 Lathe - Cross and Compound Slides}}
 +
 +
 +==== Thread Micrometer ====
 +  * NIMS Questions
 +    * [Q] A thread micrometer is used to measure what dimension on an external thread?
 +      * A. Major diameter
 +      * B. Minor diameters
 +      * C. Thread helix angle
 +      * D. Pitch diameter
 +    * [A] Pitch diameter
 +      * Major diameter can be measure with a normal micrometer
 +      * Minor diameter can NOT be measured but the depth of cut on the compound rest measures true radius, so could calculate the minor diameter
 +      * Thread helix angle is also known as the lead angle which is 30°
 +        * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​thread-helixangle.png|Helix Angle}}
 +          * see Machinery'​s Handbook, 27th Ed, p. 1966
 ===== Drilling ===== ===== Drilling =====
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​fundmoderndraftp323-drilltypes.png|Figure 1-0 Typical types of machining operations depicted on working drawings, Fundamentals of Modern Drafting by Paul Ross Wallach, Chapter 18 - Working Drawings, p. 323}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​machining:​fundmoderndraftp323-drilltypes.png|Figure 1-0 Typical types of machining operations depicted on working drawings, Fundamentals of Modern Drafting by Paul Ross Wallach, Chapter 18 - Working Drawings, p. 323}}
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   - Traverse circular Pitch, P<​sub>​T</​sub>​ = 1 / (TPI cos 30°) for diamond knurls typical helix angle is 30°   - Traverse circular Pitch, P<​sub>​T</​sub>​ = 1 / (TPI cos 30°) for diamond knurls typical helix angle is 30°
   - Number of Knurls (Real) = π ∅<​sub>​init</​sub>​ / P<​sub>​T</​sub>​   - Number of Knurls (Real) = π ∅<​sub>​init</​sub>​ / P<​sub>​T</​sub>​
-    - Integer = round(Real)+    - Multiple or Integer = round(Real)
       - round down if workpiece diameter cannot be increased, say in the case it has already been machined       - round down if workpiece diameter cannot be increased, say in the case it has already been machined
   - new or revised Diameter (∅<​sub>​rev</​sub>​) of work piece = Integer * P<​sub>​T</​sub>​ / π   - new or revised Diameter (∅<​sub>​rev</​sub>​) of work piece = Integer * P<​sub>​T</​sub>​ / π
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   * 2. Lathe spindle speed (RPM)   * 2. Lathe spindle speed (RPM)
     * "​Knurling is ordinarily performed at the same speeds used as cutting operations. Use the SFM used for high speed and cobalt tool bits to calculate speeds and feeds. However, where spindle speeds can be reduced without loss of production, it is recommended that spindle speeds be lowered as much as possible to increase knurl life." ([[https://​www.doriantool.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​SEC-H-Knurling-Tools_LowRes.pdf|Dorian Tool - Knurling Tools for Cutting & Forming]] p. H-10)     * "​Knurling is ordinarily performed at the same speeds used as cutting operations. Use the SFM used for high speed and cobalt tool bits to calculate speeds and feeds. However, where spindle speeds can be reduced without loss of production, it is recommended that spindle speeds be lowered as much as possible to increase knurl life." ([[https://​www.doriantool.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​SEC-H-Knurling-Tools_LowRes.pdf|Dorian Tool - Knurling Tools for Cutting & Forming]] p. H-10)
 +
 +==== Knurl - Machine Shop Trade Secrets ====
 +  * "A proper diameter to knurl is any diameter that is a multiple of the spacing or distance between the teeth of a knurling tool divided by Pi π (3.14159). The relationship is the same whether the knurl is a diamond or a straight knurl. However, the spacing of the teeth of a diamond knurl must be measured along the axis of the part or roller for the relationship to hold true." ([Harvey 2004, p.190])
 +  * Let's do an example: Suppose you want to impress a diamond knurl on a one inch diameter shaft. Suppose also that the spacing or distance between each tooth of the knurling tool measured along the axis of the roller is approximately .060". You can measure the spacing with calipers. The measurement is not extremely critical in that ultimately your final diameter will be determined by trial and error. However, the measurement will give you a decent starting point. According to the above relationship,​ if we divide .060 by Pi π (3.14159) we get .019. Accordingly,​ any multiple of .019 should give you a diameter that would give you a perfect knurl. For example: .019 times an arbitrary number such as 40 equals .760. In theory then, if you turned a shaft to .760" you would be able to create a perfect knurl. However, since we want to knurl a shaft that is approximately one inch in diameter we have to find a multiple of .019 that gets us close to one inch. After a little trial and error and playing around on a calculator we find that .019 times 52 equals .988 which is close to one inch. .988 then would be a good theoretical starting point.
 +  * In practice though and from experience the chances of getting a perfect knurl on the .988 shaft diameter are not great. The error happens as a result of an imperfect measurement made between the teeth of the knurling tool which is no big deal anyhow because ultimately you are going to sneak up on a usable diameter. Begin by machining the part about .010" larger than the calculated diameter. Let's proceed."​
 +  * References
 +    * [Harvey 2004] Machine Shop Trade Secrets - A Guide to Manufacturing Machine Shop Practices by James A. Harvey, p. 189-192. [[https://​www.amazon.com/​Machine-Trade-Secrets-James-Harvey/​dp/​0974389765/​ref=sr_1_1?​ie=UTF8&​qid=1550871331&​sr=8-1&​keywords=0974389765|ISBN 0-9743897-6-5 at Amazon]] note 2nd edition is available, [[https://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​0831134771/​ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_bibl_vppi_i0|Machine Shop Trade Secrets, 2nd Ed]]
  
 ==== Knurl Training Product ==== ==== Knurl Training Product ====
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 ==== Supplies and Materials ==== ==== Supplies and Materials ====
 +  * Intermountain Machining Supply, Inc ([[http://​www.ims.supply/​OnlineCatalog|www.ims.supply/​OnlineCatalog]])
 +    * Greg Goetz (pronouce Gets) ggoetz@ims.supply,​ 208-321-8073
   * [[http://​mcfaddendalehardwarelv.com/​|McFadden-Dale Industrial Hardware]]   * [[http://​mcfaddendalehardwarelv.com/​|McFadden-Dale Industrial Hardware]]
   * [[http://​www.sherline.com|Sherline Products]] lathes and mills. Craig Libuse, craig@sherline.com,​ 10% educational/​non-profit discount call Kim Kapple 800-541-0735   * [[http://​www.sherline.com|Sherline Products]] lathes and mills. Craig Libuse, craig@sherline.com,​ 10% educational/​non-profit discount call Kim Kapple 800-541-0735
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   * [[http://​www.bullberry.com/​|Bullberry Barrel Works]] in Hurricane Utah   * [[http://​www.bullberry.com/​|Bullberry Barrel Works]] in Hurricane Utah
  
 +===== NIMS Certification =====
 +
 +==== Turning I ( Between Centers) ====
 +  * [[https://​www.nims-skills.org/​credentials/​turning-i-between-centers|Turning I (Between Centers)]]
 +  * [[https://​www.nims-skills.org/​resources/​study-material/​357|Turning I Sample Test]]
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