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engineer-mechanical:lean [2019/07/13 16:31]
jjensen [5 Cs or 5S of Workplace Organization]
engineer-mechanical:lean [2019/08/06 13:54] (current)
jjensen [Push vs Pull (KanBan)]
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 ==== Visual Control with Shadow Toolboards ==== ==== Visual Control with Shadow Toolboards ====
 +===== Lean Six Sigma =====
 +  * "Lean Six Sigma is a combination of two powerful methodologies:​ Lean and Six Sigma. The Lean toolkit provides ways to streamline processes by reducing Waste and the Six Sigma toolkit provides tools to reduce defects by conducting root cause analysis. Together, they provide the fastest, most effective way to improve processes."​ ([[http://​yb.goleansixsigma.com/​|Yellow Belt Training]])
 +  * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​lean-six-sigma.png|Lean Six Sigma Defined}}
 +  * Benefits and Objectives of Lean Six Sigma
 +    * 1. Increase Revenue - remove waste from a process
 +    * 2. Decrease Costs - remove rework and scrap
 +    * 3. Increase Efficiency - spend less time on steps that don't add value
 +    * 4. Effective People - build problem solvers, team work and collaboration
 +  * Drive profitability by increasing revenue and reducing expenses
 +  * Better understand and deliver on customer requirements
 +  * Gain a competitive advantage over competition
 +
 +===== Six Sigma =====
 +  * Philosophy
 +    * strives for perfection in meeting customer requirements
 +    * proactive and prevention-based instead of reactive and detection-based
 +  * Performance metric
 +    * refers to a level of quality that is near perfect
 +  * Methodology
 +    * strives for a defect level that is no more than 3.4 parts per million
 +    * Sigma is the Greek alphabet used to represent standard deviation (a measure of variation)
 +    * Very small standard deviation from the mean/​average to the nearest specification limit is equivalent to six standard deviations or six sigmas.
 +
 ===== Operational Excellence ===== ===== Operational Excellence =====
   * Operational excellence is better (quality), faster (time) and cheaper (money)   * Operational excellence is better (quality), faster (time) and cheaper (money)
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 === DFSS - 5 Phase Methodology === === DFSS - 5 Phase Methodology ===
 +
   * Define - purpose/​reason of product, keeps everyone focused   * Define - purpose/​reason of product, keeps everyone focused
   * Measure - voice of the customer (VOC) needs identified and measured   * Measure - voice of the customer (VOC) needs identified and measured
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   * Verify - tested to meet customer needs   * Verify - tested to meet customer needs
  
 +==== DMAIC - 5 Phases of Six Sigma ====
 +  * Goal of DMAIC is to better plan, predict and deliver products/​services to customer. It is a methodology for root cause analysis.
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​dmaic-approach-in-lean-six-sigma-by-skumar.png?​400|DMAIC Approach in Lean}}
 +      * [[https://​www.msystraining.com/​articles/​quality-management/​dmaic-approach-in-lean-six-sigma/​|msystraining.com]]
 +    * DMAIC should NOT be uses where the root cause and solution are already known
 +    * DMAIC should be used when
 +      * when there is a problem and the root cause is **unknown**
 +      * when the right solution to solve a problem is unknown because the root cause is unknown
 +      * When the stakes are high, and we need to be absolutely sure that the solution implemented solves the problem
 +      * When a persistent problem exists, multiple solutions have been tried, but none have solved the problem. Why? Most likely, it is because the root cause is unknown!
 +  * 1. Define - what is important to the customer? What are the customer requirements?​ What is the project scope/​boundaries/​limits?​
 +    * Problem and goal statements
 +    * **"A problem well stated is a problem half-solved."​** Charles Kettering
 +  * 2. Measure - size and scope of work, define the types of defects and metrics in the process.
 +  * 3. Analyze - perform root cause analysis, data is analyzed to determine causes/​factors impacting performance
 +  * 4. Improve - develop solutions and pilot/​implement
 +  * 5. Control - controls are established to ensure gains are sustainable
 +  * References
 +    * lynda.com - [[https://​www.lynda.com/​Business-Skills-tutorials/​Steps-Measure-phase/​439681/​512154-4.html?​autoplay=true|An overview of DMAIC]] by Dr. Richard Chua
 +
 +==== Step 1: Define Phase - Problem and Goal Statement ====
 +  * Problem Statement
 +    * Problem should be recurring and chronic
 +    * Problem should be relevant and significant to the company, else why bother
 +    * Problem should be measurable to indicate a size and impact of the problem in operational and financial terms
 +  * Examples
 +    * Problem Statement
 +      * "Over the past 12 months, First Call Resolution at our IT Help Desk is only 60%. This is below the 75% required in our service level agreement. Failure to meet this requirement will result in a loss of $200,000 in penalties, not to mention customer dissatisfaction,​ non-renewals,​ and the potential loss of clients."​
 +    * Goal Statement
 +      * "​Improve First Call Resolution rate to 75% or higher, while ensuring customer satisfication,​ within the next four months."​
 +
 +=== SIPOC ===
 +  * SIPOC = Supplier > Input > Process > Output > Customer
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​sipoc.png|SIPOC}}
 +==== Step 2a: Measure Phase - Data Collection Plan ====
 +  * 1-Make a list of specific questions you want answered
 +  * 2-For each questions, decide how you want the answers presented and displayed
 +  * 3-Then decide what tools are needed
 +  * 4-What type of data and how much data is required by that tool
 +  * 5-Determine where and from whom the data should be collected
 +==== Step 2b: Measure Phase - Process Map ====
 +  * A diagram that provides a visual representation of steps that take place in a process from start to finish.
 +  * Map of relevant processes
 +    * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​processmap-example-wakeup.png|Process Map - Wake Up and Get to Work}}
 +    * [[https://​www.lynda.com/​Business-Skills-tutorials/​How-map-current-process/​439681/​512155-4.html|LinkedIn - Dr. Richard Chu]]
 +  * Process map is used during the Measure phase of Six Sigma to map the current process.
 +  * Helps to identify any bottlenecks/​delays
 +  * Rectangle - activities or tasks
 +  * Diamond - decisions
 +  * Arrow - sequence of flow
 +  * Ovals - start and end points
 +
 +==== Step 2c: Measure Phase - Validate the Measurement System ====
 +  * **Cannot improve what you don't measure**
 +  * Measurement System Analysis (MSA) - must be done before any data is collected
 +  * Validate
 +  * Repeatable
 +  * Reproducible - between different machine shops
 +
 +==== Step 2d: Measure Phase - ====
 +
 +==== Step 3: Analyze Phase ====
 +  * Why is there a problem? ​
 +  * Cause & Effect Diagram objective is to Examine an undesirable situation (effect) and its potential causes
 +  * 1. generate a list of potential (using brainstorming) causes that impact the effects
 +  * 2. organize potential causes
 +    * create a cause-effect diagram (Fishbone)
 +      * An organized list of all the potential causes on a particular effect/​result/​outcome/​consequence
 +      * Used to help brainstorm and organize potential causes that impact the outcome/​effects
 +      * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​cause-effect-diagram-pizzacrust.png|Example Cause and Effect Diagram from Richard Chu}}
 +      * Tips on Using Fishbone Diagrams
 +        * Label the fish head. It should be the effect/​outcome/​problem you are trying to solve by changing the causes
 +        * Remember, the fish head stinks! The '​problem'​ should be an undesirable effect
 +        * Two popular brainstorming approaches
 +          * use stickies to brainstorm possible causes. Then, affinitize the stickies into groups. These groups then become your fishbone labels.
 +          * pre-label the fishbone branches
 +            * Administrative labels: people, procedures, policy, place
 +            * Manufacturing labels: Machine, manpower, mother nature, materials, methods
 +      * [[https://​support.office.com/​en-us/​article/​create-a-cause-and-effect-diagram-in-visio-078d0eae-3f18-4f44-a19f-96962160e723|Create a cause and effect diagram in Visio]]
 +  * 3. shortlist and select the likely key causes
 +  * 4. develop a data collection plan for the analysis
 +  * 5. prove the key causes
 +==== Step 4: Improve Phase ====
 +  * Purpose - address the proven causes and come up with solutions to improve the effects
 +  * Step 1 - generate potential solutions to address proven key causes
 +    * Brainstorming
 +    * Anti-brainstorming - how to make things worse
 +    * Creative-thinking techniques
 +    * Six Thinking Hats from Edward de Bono - team members play the role
 +      * Yellow Hat - Optimism, Hope
 +      * Black Hat - Devil'​s advocate
 +      * Purple Hat - Creativity
 +      * Green Hat - Process (new beginnings)
 +      * White/​Gray/​Tan - Facts, neutral colors
 +      * Red Hat - Feelings
 +      * References
 +        * [[https://​www.smashingmagazine.com/​2010/​01/​color-theory-for-designers-part-1-the-meaning-of-color/​|Color Theory for Designers]]
 +  * Step 2 - evaluate solution alternatives
 +    * Multi-voting - each member votes
 +    * 2x2 matrices ​
 +      * Quadrant 1 - High Benefit High Cost
 +      * Quadrant 2 - Low Benefit High Cost
 +      * Quadrant 3 - Low Benefit Low Cost
 +      * Quadrant 4 - High Benefit Low Cost
 +  * Step 3 - select the right set of solutions and implement
 +    * Criteria selection matrix
 +      * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​criteria-selection-matrix.png|Criteria Selection Matrix}}
 +    * Pugh matrix
 +      * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​pugh-matrix.png|Pugh Matrix}}
 +    * Cost-benefit analysis
 +      * Quadrant 1 - High Benefit High Cost
 +      * Quadrant 2 - Low Benefit High Cost
 +      * Quadrant 3 - Low Benefit Low Cost
 +      * Quadrant 4 - High Benefit Low Cost
 +  * These steps require
 +    * A new process map showing the improved process
 +    * Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)
 +    * Mistake proofing
 +    * Pilot testing
 +    * Involve key stakeholders in the improvement phase
 +      * Process Owners
 +      * Operators
 +      * Managers
 +==== Step 5: Control Phase ====
 +  * Establish controls/​policies & procedures to ensure the causes are done and the improved effects are sustainable
 +  * Step 1 - Develop a control plan
 +  * Step 2 - Work with process owners to update procedures
 +  * Step 3 - Implement and monitor performance
 +  * Step 4 - validate actual financial impact
 +  * Step 5 - secure project completion sign-off
 ==== Value Stream Mapping ==== ==== Value Stream Mapping ====
   * Map to identify where there is waste in manufacturing process   * Map to identify where there is waste in manufacturing process
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 ==== Lean Manufacture - 7 Deadly Wastes ==== ==== Lean Manufacture - 7 Deadly Wastes ====
 +  * Applying new tools to the same old process can help people see with new eyes. Applying the 8 Wastes provides this essential new perspective.
 +    * "The read voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new lands but seeing with new eyes." (Marcel Proust)
 +  * DOWNTIME acronym
 +    * D = Defects
 +      * customer dissatisfaction in a process, errors that occur over and over, re-work and re-do'​s
 +    * O = Overproduction
 +      * making more, earlier or faster than the next process needs it
 +    * W = Waiting
 +      * the most prevalent of the 8 Wastes. Waiting refers to any time there is a delay and customers are waiting for goods or services.
 +    * N = Non-utilized talent
 +      * don't think, just do
 +      * people feel underutilized and under-appreciated in this type of environment
 +    * T = Transportation (aka Touches)
 +      * excessive movement of material or information
 +      * inefficient flow
 +      * potential waste of money
 +    * I = Inventory
 +      * any materials or supplies in excess of the appropriate quantity at the appropriate time
 +      * having a year supply of paper
 +    * M = Motion
 +      * excessive movement of people
 +    * E = Extra-Processing
 +      * multiple levels of approval signatures
 +      * reduntant process steps
 +      * unnecessary completion of templates, forms and/or documents
   * The 7 Wastes   * The 7 Wastes
     * 1-overproduction - to produce sooner, faster or in greater quantities than the customer demands     * 1-overproduction - to produce sooner, faster or in greater quantities than the customer demands
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   * <​HTML><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​cqrVW-PD7Xk"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​HTML>​   * <​HTML><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​cqrVW-PD7Xk"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​HTML>​
  
 +=== How to remove Waste once identified ===
 +  * Eliminate - the cause of waste where possible
 +  * Simplify - the process or step that is creating the Waste
 +  * Streamline - the process when they are complex
 +  * Minimize - the amount of waste in the process
 +  * Examples
 +    * Making a sandwich
 +      * Problem - unnecessary movement to stockrooms to gather food items
 +      * Solution - for highest volume items, organize ingredients in assembly line fashion to process the order
 ==== 5 Cs or 5S of Workplace Organization ==== ==== 5 Cs or 5S of Workplace Organization ====
   * An organized workplace is one that complies with the "​30-second rule" - anyone should be able to find anything within 30 seconds by using the 5S system of workplace organization (sort, set in order, shine, standardize,​ sustain, and safety)   * An organized workplace is one that complies with the "​30-second rule" - anyone should be able to find anything within 30 seconds by using the 5S system of workplace organization (sort, set in order, shine, standardize,​ sustain, and safety)
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     * become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement     * become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement
 ==== Push vs Pull (KanBan) ==== ==== Push vs Pull (KanBan) ====
 +  * Pull System - Path to Prosperity
 +    * Good Leadership is Pull System
 +      * Finding opportunities in struggle
 +      * Investing in Market creating innovations - which creates the jobs to grow the local economy
 +      * Execute a pull strategy of development,​ new markets demand infrastructure improvements
 +  * Push System
 +    * If you built it, he will come (Field of Dreams)
   * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​pushvspull.png|Push vs Pull Manufacturing}}   * {{engineer-mechanical:​lean:​pushvspull.png|Push vs Pull Manufacturing}}
  
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     * Processor - add value to the raw material     * Processor - add value to the raw material
     * Customer - receive from the supplier, ensure I communicate my expectations     * Customer - receive from the supplier, ensure I communicate my expectations
 +
 +==== SMED Single Minute Exchange of Dies ====
 +  * Idea invented by Shigeo Shingo - A Revolution in Manufacturing:​ The SMED System
 +  * SMED system breakdown
 +    * 80% workplace organization and planning
 +    * 10% equipment
 +    * 5% tooling
 +    * 5% product design
 +  * Definition of Quick Changeover
 +    * The amount of time taken to change a piece of equipment from producing the last good piece of a production lot to the first good piece of the next production lot.
 +  * Why quick changeorder?​
 +    * reduces lead-time
 +    * improves on time delivery
 +    * reduces inventory carrying costs
 +  * One Piece Flow - make one move one. The workpiece experiences no waiting which happens when trying to do work in batches.
 +  * Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)
 +    * At some point the 
 +    * Point where the holding/​batch/​lot size cost equals the ordering/​producing cost
 +  * References
 +    * <​html><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​jW-pl4HBxWM"​ frameborder="​0"​ allow="​accelerometer;​ autoplay; encrypted-media;​ gyroscope; picture-in-picture"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
 ==== Lean Manufacturing Books ==== ==== Lean Manufacturing Books ====
   * The Toyota Way by Jeffrey Liker   * The Toyota Way by Jeffrey Liker
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