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engineer-electrical:electronics [2019/10/13 20:51]
jjensen [References]
engineer-electrical:electronics [2020/05/07 15:06] (current)
jjensen [Resistance/Ohms/O]
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 +===== Electricity =====
 +  * Bases of Electricity - when a force such as friction or a magnetic field influences an atom such as the transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom.
 +
 ===== Cost to run electric motor ===== ===== Cost to run electric motor =====
 +  * Electrical energy, E is a variable that describes the amount of power consumed or supplied in a certain amount of time
 +    * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​electrical-energy.png|Electrical Energy}}
   * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​cost-run-electric-motor.png|Fig. 1-1 Cost to run an electric motor}}   * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​cost-run-electric-motor.png|Fig. 1-1 Cost to run an electric motor}}
     * ([[http://​metalfinishing.epubxp.com/​t/​12238-metal-finishing-guide-book|2013/​14 Universal Metal Finishing Guidebook]],​ p. 834 of 844)     * ([[http://​metalfinishing.epubxp.com/​t/​12238-metal-finishing-guide-book|2013/​14 Universal Metal Finishing Guidebook]],​ p. 834 of 844)
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     * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​multimeter-volts.png|Fig. 1-1 Multimeter - Voltage Value Limits, Make Electronics by Platt, p. 3}}     * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​multimeter-volts.png|Fig. 1-1 Multimeter - Voltage Value Limits, Make Electronics by Platt, p. 3}}
  
 +===== Circuit Constants =====
 +  * A constant is a parameter in a system that does not change
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​circuit-constants.png|Circuit Constants}}
 +
 +===== Circuit Variables =====
 +  * A variable is a parameter in a system that can change or be adjusted
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​circuit-variables.png|Circuit Variables}}
 +
 +===== Charge =====
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​charge.png|Electrical Charge}}
 +
 +===== Voltage =====
 +  * Voltage (V) is the force that pushes charge through a circuit to produce a current
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​voltage.png|Electrical Voltage}}
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​voltage.gif|Electrical Voltage Animation}}
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​voltage-examples.png|Voltage Examples}}
 ===== Resistance ===== ===== Resistance =====
 +  * Resistance is the opposition to electron flow
 +    * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​resistance.png|Resistance}}
 +    * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​resistance-calc.png|Resistance Calculation}}
 +    * Resistance of a wire
 +      * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​resistance-wire.png|Resistance of Wire}}
   * **Resistance** is an opposition to current and is caused by a lack of available charge carriers or a difficulty in moving charge carriers through a material. The unit of resistance is the **ohm**, which is name in honor of [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Georg_Ohm|Georg Simon Ohm]] (1787-1854),​ a Bavarian-born German physicist. The Greek capital letter omega (O) is often used as an abbreviation for the work ohm. In mathematical equations, the ohm is represented by the capital letter **R** (Electricity and Electronics by Newman, p. 62)   * **Resistance** is an opposition to current and is caused by a lack of available charge carriers or a difficulty in moving charge carriers through a material. The unit of resistance is the **ohm**, which is name in honor of [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Georg_Ohm|Georg Simon Ohm]] (1787-1854),​ a Bavarian-born German physicist. The Greek capital letter omega (O) is often used as an abbreviation for the work ohm. In mathematical equations, the ohm is represented by the capital letter **R** (Electricity and Electronics by Newman, p. 62)
     * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​georg-simon-ohm.jpg|Fig. 1-2 Georg Simon Ohm}}     * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​georg-simon-ohm.jpg|Fig. 1-2 Georg Simon Ohm}}
 +
 +==== Resistor Examples ====
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​resistor-examples.png|Resistor Examples}}
 +==== Conductance ====
 +  * Conductance,​ G is the inverse of resistance
 +    * G = 1/R, units of Siemens
 +    * gold, copper and silver are good conductors of electrons
  
 ==== Resistors ==== ==== Resistors ====
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     * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​resistorsohms.png|Fig. 1-1 Resistor Color Code and Abbreviations}}     * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​resistorsohms.png|Fig. 1-1 Resistor Color Code and Abbreviations}}
  
 +===== Inductance =====
 +  * Inductance, L in an electric circuit creates opposition to changes in current. Introduce delay in a circuit, choke coils, creates a slower rise in current and voltage.
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​inductance.png|Inductance}}
 +
 +=== Inductor Examples ===
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​inductor-examples.png|Inductor Examples}}
 +===== Capacitance =====
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​capacitance.png|Capacitance}}
 ===== Transistor ===== ===== Transistor =====
   * "A three-terminal semiconductor device that can amplify an ac signal or be used as an electronic switch"​ (Grob'​s Basic Electronics,​ 11th Edition by Mitchel E. Schultz, p. 1167)   * "A three-terminal semiconductor device that can amplify an ac signal or be used as an electronic switch"​ (Grob'​s Basic Electronics,​ 11th Edition by Mitchel E. Schultz, p. 1167)
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   * Volts = Amps x Ohms   * Volts = Amps x Ohms
   * V = IR   * V = IR
 +    * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​ohmslaw.png|Ohm'​s Law Triangle}}
     * <​HTML><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​FIlFcoPAwdM"​ frameborder="​0"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​HTML>​     * <​HTML><​iframe width="​560"​ height="​315"​ src="​https://​www.youtube.com/​embed/​FIlFcoPAwdM"​ frameborder="​0"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​HTML>​
   * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​ohms-law.png|Fig. 1-1 Ohm's Law and Power Equations}}   * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​ohms-law.png|Fig. 1-1 Ohm's Law and Power Equations}}
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     * In your home circuit, the voltage remains constant, usually 115 volts. Amperage draw will vary with the number of lights and appliances connected into each circuit. Stoves, hot-water heaters and air conditioners are usually on a separate, 220-volt circuit.     * In your home circuit, the voltage remains constant, usually 115 volts. Amperage draw will vary with the number of lights and appliances connected into each circuit. Stoves, hot-water heaters and air conditioners are usually on a separate, 220-volt circuit.
     * To figure the current load a standard circuit can safely carry, determine its wattage capacity by multiplying the voltage (115 volts) by the size of the fuse (usually 15 amps). Total the wattage of each item already in the circuit and subtract this from the wattage capacity. The remainder will tell you how much you can add safely. (Popular Mechanics Do-It-Yourself Encyclopedia,​ Vol 1, p. 109)     * To figure the current load a standard circuit can safely carry, determine its wattage capacity by multiplying the voltage (115 volts) by the size of the fuse (usually 15 amps). Total the wattage of each item already in the circuit and subtract this from the wattage capacity. The remainder will tell you how much you can add safely. (Popular Mechanics Do-It-Yourself Encyclopedia,​ Vol 1, p. 109)
 +
 +=== Power ===
 +  * Power, P is the rate of doing work
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​power-schematic.png|Power Schematic}}
    
 ===== Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) ===== ===== Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) =====
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 ==== Current/​Intensity I/Amps A ==== ==== Current/​Intensity I/Amps A ====
 +  * current is the rate at which electrons flow in an electrical circuit, Current, I = Charge, Q / Time, t
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​current.png|Current}}
   * "Since current is the movement of charge, the unit for stating the amount of current is defined in rate of flow of charge. When the charge moves at the rate of 6.25 X 10<​sup>​18</​sup>​ electrons flowing past a given point per second, the value of the current is one ampere (A). This is the same as one coulomb of charge per second. The ampere unit of current is named after Andre M. Ampere (1775-1836). The symbol for current is I or i for intensity, since the current is a measure of how intense or concentrated the electron flow is. Two amperes of current in a copper wire is a higher intensity than one ampere; a greater concentration of moving electrons results because of more electrons in motion. Sometimes current is called amperage. However, the current in electrons circuits is usually in smaller units, milliamperes and microamperes."​ (Grob'​s Basic Electronics,​ 11th Edition by Mitchel E. Schultz, p. 36)   * "Since current is the movement of charge, the unit for stating the amount of current is defined in rate of flow of charge. When the charge moves at the rate of 6.25 X 10<​sup>​18</​sup>​ electrons flowing past a given point per second, the value of the current is one ampere (A). This is the same as one coulomb of charge per second. The ampere unit of current is named after Andre M. Ampere (1775-1836). The symbol for current is I or i for intensity, since the current is a measure of how intense or concentrated the electron flow is. Two amperes of current in a copper wire is a higher intensity than one ampere; a greater concentration of moving electrons results because of more electrons in motion. Sometimes current is called amperage. However, the current in electrons circuits is usually in smaller units, milliamperes and microamperes."​ (Grob'​s Basic Electronics,​ 11th Edition by Mitchel E. Schultz, p. 36)
   * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​ampere-andre-1825.jpg|Figure 1-0 Andre M. Ampere (1775-1839)}}   * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​ampere-andre-1825.jpg|Figure 1-0 Andre M. Ampere (1775-1839)}}
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     * electrons are solid particles     * electrons are solid particles
  
 +==== Current Density ====
 +  * Current Density, J is the amount of electron crowding. As the Current Density in a wire increases, the temperature in the wire will also increase.
 +    * J = I / Area, A
 +    * J = 3000 amps / 2 in^2 = 1500 A/in^2
 +    * copper wire max J = 1000 A/in^2
 +    * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​current-density.png|Current Density}}
 ==== Resistance/​Ohms/​O ==== ==== Resistance/​Ohms/​O ====
   - Resistance - nature of the material/​metal in which the electrons flow. Iron offers more resistance than Copper. Output of resistance is heat and light. Units of Ohm. Brass, Porcelain and Rubber are good insulators (high resistance or no flow of electrons)   - Resistance - nature of the material/​metal in which the electrons flow. Iron offers more resistance than Copper. Output of resistance is heat and light. Units of Ohm. Brass, Porcelain and Rubber are good insulators (high resistance or no flow of electrons)
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     * <​html><​iframe src="​https://​phet.colorado.edu/​sims/​html/​faradays-law/​latest/​faradays-law_en.html"​ width="​800"​ height="​600"​ scrolling="​no"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​     * <​html><​iframe src="​https://​phet.colorado.edu/​sims/​html/​faradays-law/​latest/​faradays-law_en.html"​ width="​800"​ height="​600"​ scrolling="​no"​ allowfullscreen></​iframe></​html>​
  
 +===== Circuit Example =====
 +  * {{engineer-electrical:​electronics:​circuit-example.png|Circuit Example}}
 +  * 
  
 ===== CSN Courses ===== ===== CSN Courses =====
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